A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nature vs Science and Autophagy.pro

Conclusion: The anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links food energy directly from the innate immune system to all morphological and behavioral diversity. It all about energy. It’s all about the creation of enzymes. It’s all about the base pairs.


Until the day that I launched Autophagy.pro, I had only one or two Facebook posts that were marked as spam. Since December 11, 2017, I have had ~5 posts marked as spam.

See for example: This comment was marked as spam at Ciência Biomédica, when I responded to  Synthetic protein packages its own genetic material and evolves

Packaging is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained. Nothing evolves. The concept is foolish. See: A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution 
Excerpt: Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.
 
Laboratory co-oximeters determine the %HbO2 (%SaO2 ) by measuring the amount a specific frequency of light is absorbed as it passes through a known volume of blood. In contrast, pulse oximetry (SpO2) measures the change in light absorbed at systole and diastole. This allows the pulse oximeter to distinguish between the constant amount of light absorbed by the tissue, bone, venous blood, etc. from the arterial blood (the blood in the volume change due to the pulse).
 
The amount of light absorbed by the tissue, bone, venous blood etc., varies in the context of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. Blood gas analysis in the medical laboratory links differences in hydrogen (H2) — as in H2O from quantized energy-dependent changes in the potential of hydrogen (pH) to all biophysically constrained biodiversity.
 

Measuring pH links what is known about nutritional epigenetics from the innate immune system to healthy longevity via everything known about autophagy. The measurements can be compared in the context of  what is known about virus-driven energy theft, which links stress from the replication of viruses to all pathology via critical care testing of other blood gas analytes such as pCO2, pO2, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Glucose, Lactic Acid, and Hematocrit.

For example in a mammal, see: Epistasis Among Adaptive Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin (June 14, 2013)

See Fig. 2 Difference in the network of hydrogen bonds between high- and low-altitude Hb variants, HH-H and LL-L, respectively.

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My comment to the Science site (submitted 6/14/13 published 6/20/13):

In my model species-specific epistasis is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. An additional example of this showed up earlier this week in the context of the epigenetically-effected microRNA/messenger RNA balance: “miR-124 controls male reproductive success in Drosophila”

miR-14 acts in neurosecretory cells in the adult brain to control metabolism and miR-124 acts in the context of brain-directed neuroendocrine control of sexual differentiation and male pheromone production, which is controlled in mammals by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus.

We can anticipate extension to mammals of the Drosophila model from the abstract of a forthcoming Science article: “MiR-200b and miR-429 Function in Mouse Ovulation and Are Essential for Female Fertility.” Given our earlier work in the context of molecular epigenetics and the concept of alternative splicings and sexual differentiation in Drosophila and C. elegans, I suspect we will see evidence for nutrient-dependent adaptive evolution of GnRH pulse frequency-controlled LH secretion and pheromone-controlled female fertility in mice.

If I’m correct, this evidence will link glucose and pheromones to feedback loops that control reproduction in invertebrates and vertebrates. (See Nutrient–dependent / pheromone–controlled adaptive evolution: a model). Model organisms exemplify these feedback loops in microbes, nematodes, insects, and other mammals. The mouse to human example that Kamberov et al., and Grossman et al., detailed is the most telling.

A single amino acid substitution appears to result in what seem to be nutrient-dependent changes in the thermodynamics of intracellular signaling, intranuclear interactions, stochastic gene expression, and selection for phenotype via organism-level thermoregulation in a human population that arose in what is now central China during the past ~30K years.

Using a model that integrates what is known about the common molecular mechanisms may help establish whether adaptive mutations lead to thermodynamic effects on organism-level thermoregulation and epistasis, or whether epigenetic effects of nutrients and their metabolism to species-specific pheromones that control reproduction via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance are the driving force behind adaptive evolution in species from microbes to man.

See: Obligatory role of hypothalamic neuroestradiol during the estrogen-induced LH surge in female ovariectomized rhesus monkeys
Reported as:  Estrogen discovery could shed new light on fertility problems December 12, 2017

Estradiol builds in the bloodstream until it reaches a concentration that causes a surge of the hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, including one called luteinizing hormone, which in turn trigger an ovary to release an egg.

“It’s a feedback loop…

The feedback loop is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
Energy-dependent autophagy is the link from feedback loops to ecological adaptation. Science Magazine now has the opportunity to challenge the pseudoscientific nonsense of published works from the Nature Publishing Group. There is no need to consider mutations and evolution outside the context of virus-driven energy theft, which links the degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology.
See also: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease

Darwin probably anticipated the insemination of population genetics that led to the bastardization of his detailed observations in the “Modern Synthesis.” He politely insisted that ‘conditions of life’ be considered before natural selection.

There are two ‘conditions of life.’ It is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. Rosenberg and Queitsch now note the work with Dobzhansky’s rarely acknowledged claim: “I am a creationist and an evolutionist.” They also declare the need for “Deep understanding of the mechanisms that generate variation at the molecular level…”

Deep understanding of the ‘conditions of life’ does not come from theory.

Problems with the “modern synthesis” now lead us back to the facts about biologically-based cause and effect that Darwin and Dobzhansky approached with humility, which are the same biological facts that evolutionists approached with ignorance about behavioral affects and the arrogance that accompanies that ignorance. Rosenberg and Queitsch echo the sentiments of those who have been subjected to academic suppression.

Clearly, however, “nothing in evolution makes sense except in the light of biology” is not an exaggeration. It is a common sense statement about the biologically plausible genesis of functional cell types. Population genetics and evolutionary theories abandoned the biophysical constraints of ecological variation and the physiology of reproduction, which enable epigenetically-effected nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled receptor-mediated ecological adaptations and species diversity via the complexities of protein folding and niche construction.

It’s time for biophysicists to tell theorists and pathologists how to differentiate between theories about the genesis of different cell types and the biological facts about the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations that enable the genesis of different cell types in individuals of different species. Simply put, it’s time to stop trying to explain ecological adaptations in the context of mutations and evolution.

The retraction of Oligoarginine peptides slow strand annealing and assist non-enzymatic RNA replication attests to the amount of pseudoscientific nonsense published by the “Nature Publications Group” during the past few decades.
See: Retraction Watch

In retrospect, we were totally blinded by our belief [in our findings]…we were not as careful or rigorous as we should have been (and as Tivoli was) in interpreting these experiments.

How many others who published via the Nature Publishing Group were blinded by their belief in pseudoscientific nonsense that failed to link the food energy-dependent creation of enzymes and the creation of RNA from blood gas analyses to patient outcomes?
See for comparison: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Who did not know that? How did non-enzymatic RNA replication become a non-energy-dependent consideration for anyone associated with the Nature Publishing Group?
See for comparison: Mechanisms of mTORC1 activation by RHEB and inhibition by PRAS40

Here we present the 3.0 ångström cryo-electron microscopy structure of mTORC1 and the 3.4 ångström structure of activated RHEB–mTORC1. RHEB binds to mTOR distally from the kinase active site, yet causes a global conformational change that allosterically realigns active-site residues, accelerating catalysis.

The global conformational change that allosterically realigns active-site residues (i.e., amino acids), accelerating catalysis, is an energy-dependent change.
Reported as:  Scientists unlock structure of mTOR, a key cancer cell signaling protein

1) Like many proteins, mTOR is an enzyme, which binds to target molecules called substrates in a precise way to hasten chemical reactions. Specifically, it is a type of kinase, which removes phosphates (P) from ATP, the cell’s energy currency, and places them on other molecules.

The creation of the enzymatic activity of mTOR is quantized energy-dependent and it links the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency via autophagy. The retractions of Jack Szostak’s nonsense about the magical creation of enzymes after the energy of life emerged and organisms subsequently evolved in the context of differences in H2 to all biodiversity on Earth, can be placed into the context works by serious scientists.

2)  …mTOR is an enzyme, which binds to target molecules called substrates in a precise way to hasten chemical reactions. Specifically, it is a type of kinase, which removes phosphates (P) from ATP, the cell’s energy currency, and places them on other molecules. From that 2013 study, which took more than five years to complete, the team learned some key things about the protein, such as what the ATP-binding site looks like…

The study that took more than 5 years to complete was published as: mTOR kinase structure, mechanism and regulation

The structures also reveal active-site residues and conformational changes that underlie inhibitor potency and specificity.

They had experimental evidence of energy-dependent changes in active-site residues (i.e., amino acids). They subsequently failed to link anything known to serious scientists about the energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. They seemingly ignored all claims about RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the context of autophagy, which links base pair changes from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to RNA editing.
How could the Nature Publishing Group not know what all serious scientists know?
See for example: All Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017

Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young

“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The molecular mechanisms are energy-dependent.
Feedback of the Drosophila period gene product on circadian cycling of its messenger RNA levels  (1990) Hardin, Hall and Michael Rosbash
Who, besides Jack Szostak, does not know that the creation of energy must be linked to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via messenger RNA levels?

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak

“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

Where did the enzyme telomerase come from?
Face the facts, Jack (Szostak) and others. Cell type differentiation is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained at every level of examination. Biophysical constraints on viral latency are required for ecological adaptation. The anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links food energy directly from the innate immune system to all morphological and behavioral diversity. It’s all about energy. It’s all about the creation of enzymes. It’s all about the base pairs.
See:  Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Who created your virus-driven death gene? (1)

My conclusion: … they know the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy must be linked across the space-time continuum to control of the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

The so-called “death gene” is is the most obvious teleological link I have found from Luca Turin’s vibrations theory of olfaction to repair of the damaged DNA of other animals, such as non-human primates.Theology creeps back in and helps to establish the teleological link at every level of examination from electrons to ecosystems. That suggests teleology should not be ignored in the context of its explanatory power.

For example, less than one month after publication of my refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense, “RNA catalyses nuclear pre-mRNA splicing” was reported in the context of “Composition of splicing complex in chloroplasts identified for the first time

See also: One Gene, Two Mutations from November 5, 2013

My comment to The Scientist:

In my model, nutrient stress and thermal stress result in cycles of protein biosynthesis and de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes. These seemingly futile thermodynamic cycles enable nutrient uptake and cell survival. If not, the cell dies.
Thermal stress causes what happens in nutrient stress, which exemplifies the innate ability of cells to epigenetically adapt to their sensory environment via nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction sans mutations.
If mutations caused the adaptations, cancer would be an adaptation instead of a disease.  The problem is that most people still think in terms of mutations, not nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptations. Now we have mutations causing mutations sans selection, which is what happens when you don’t consider physics or biology,  and explain what happens as if it fit a theory of mutation-driven evolution, which it does not.
No budget video

Also see: C. elegans discriminate colors without eyes or opsins

“…nematode worms possess a color discrimination system despite lacking any opsin or other known visible light photoreceptor genes. We found that white light guides C. elegans foraging decisions away from harmful bacteria that secrete a blue pigment toxin. Absorption of amber light by this blue pigment toxin alters the color of light sensed by the worm, and thereby triggers an increase in avoidance. By combining narrow-band blue and amber light sources, we demonstrated that detection of the specific blue:amber ratio by the worm guides its foraging decision. These behavioral and psychophysical studies thus establish the existence of a color detection system that is distinct from those of other animals.”

The pseudoscientific nonsense that tries and fails to link mutations to evolution via any conserved molecular mechanisms is left behind by the fact that foraging behavior is required to link what organisms eat to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and behavior. The transgenerational epigenetic inhertance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes links ecological variation to ecological adaptation via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution, which must be linked to RNA-mediated DNA repair.

See also: Fast-Paced Evolution in the Andes by Carl Zimmer Nov. 7, 2013

The speed of evolution also refutes mutation-driven evolution and supports my model, which was published on June 14, 2013. Zimmer and others like him are still trying to sneak up from behind.
See also: Mosaic Copy Number Variation in Human Neurons November 1, 2013
Their “straightforward hypothesis” is simple-minded. It links energy-dependent alterations in transcriptional or epigenetic landscapes to neurons with different molecular phenotypes in different genomes.
The mosaic copy number variation arises in humans as if by magic, without any link to the facts detailed in my model.
Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model June 14, 2013

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

It is disingenuous to claim that their straightforward hypothesis is anything but a face-saving attempt that will allow them to claim “We knew it all along.” That’s what biologically uninformed science idiots must say after the new scientific truth is established.
See also: International Society for Human Ethology (ISHE) Summer Institute 2013 Presentation Published on 10 Oct 2013

James V. Kohl integrates hard science disciplines. Topics include nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled thermodynamics and thermoregulation.

For comparison, in his conclusion to Mutation-Driven Evolution, Masatoshi Nei claimed that constraint-breaking mutations are the source of all biodiversity, which he thinks should eliminate any intelligent inquiry into the teleological facts.

Here are some teleological facts for comparison: A Concise Review of MicroRNA Exploring the Insights of MicroRNA Regulations in Bacterial, Viral and Metabolic Diseases

Dysregulation of the energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance has been clearly linked to activation of the cell “death gene.” The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction offers substantial, albeit not unlimited, protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

Clearly, the amount of money wasted on gene therapy can be placed into the context of what would be spent on prevention of disease in the context of MicroRNA-regulated viral vectors for gene therapy

Anyone who does not have enough money or John McCain’s political clout, may want to consider what can be done to prevent or effectively treat glioblastoma. John McCain and others like him may not be interested in the effective treatment of others and can afford the effective treatment of their own pathology. Other veterans of US military service may not be so fortunate.

See for instance: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene

See also: A $475,000 cancer drug: Wall Street sees ‘bargain’; patients see ‘completely broken’ system

…the astonishing figure reflects a “completely broken” drug pricing system in the U.S.

See for comparison: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (4)

Mixing Science and Politics (last year):  When people suddenly find they are among a political party of losers, they must immediately try to explain why they are losers. Some losers will start campaigning for changes that they think might allow them to be something more than they have always been.
 

Electing Trump was a clear signal to the Democrats that they will always be losers — unless they can change the rules. Changing the rules will not make winners out of losers, it will simply make the losers appear to be something they are not.

See: Edward Dostoevsky November 22, 2016

Image may contain: 2 people, text

Serious scientists always knew the number of cards in any deck was limited in the context of the space-time continuum and energy-dependent rules of play. The virus-driven theft of quantized energy and the degradation of messenger RNA establishes the limits to how long the game can be played before the rules are enforced at the level of energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems. See: Cytosis
 
See also this information on the game Subatomic
 
Subatomic is a deck building game where players are competing to build a number of available atoms.
Players also have an energy track that allows them to store energy, which introduces a “push-their-luck” type of mechanic enabling players to pay energy to shuffle through their deck quicker…

When the virus-driven theft of quantized energy eliminates any energy you have stored, it’s game over. You cannot simply take another card and you have no more chances to win. Pseudoscientists are the losers. Everyone else on Earth wins.

Interrogating marine virus-host interactions and elemental transfer with BONCAT and nanoSIMS-based methods

Their conclusion attests to the fact that they know the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy must be linked across the space-time continuum to control of the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

See also: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Pheromones biophysically constrain RNA-mediated biodiversity (1)

Elaine Morgan on paradigm shifts. Her view of the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists and “Big Bang” cosmologists is humorous and she accurately represents what’s been happening to me and others like me for the past two decades. It’s what we expect. It’s your choice to keep laughing about it.

See for comparison: Functional screening in human cardiac organoids reveals a metabolic mechanism for cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest
Reported as: Scientists have identified the metabolic pathway associated with heart repair

Scientists identified the pathway using experiments performed on engineered heart tissues grown from stem cells. Following a study that mapped the pathways found in mouse hearts, this new study correlated those pathways to the human heart, identifying the specific pathway in human heart tissues. By profiling and comparing heart with and without regeneration capacity, the specific pathway was isolated.

See also: Metabolism switch signals end for healing hearts

Dr Hudson’s team is now working with a company to identify drugs that could re-activate the heart’s ability to self-repair.

The pathway is food energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. That fact is obvious and it attests to the fact that the pathway is biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which links the fixation of amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity in all living genera. Drug therapies typically do not lead to fixation of amino acid substitutions or to healthy longevity.
For comparison, see: Assessment of Pep, Fndc5, C2c12, Pgc1α Pattern of Genes Expression during Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Heart Cells

The mouse embryonic stem cells as a model for cardiac differentiation induced by ascorbic acid used and the pattern of expression of PEP at certain stages of differentiation were analyzed by Real-Time PCR technique.

This suggests ascorbic acid (vitamin C) may be essential for the biophysical constraints on the creation of amino acids that differentiate cell types. But see: A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution

Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.

For contrast to the claim the amino acid compositions evolve see:
Figures 1-3 are examples of what is known about learning and memory in the context of brain waves and everything else known about energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
Figure 1: The amino acid sequence encoded by the gene FNDC5.
Figure 2: Structure of N-terminal and C-terminal gene FNDC5 the region.
Figure 3: How FNDC5 gene and PGC1a neuron in the human brain functions.
In an invited review of nutritional epigenetics, I linked exogenous vitamin C to levels of endogenous vitamin C and differences in the amino acid sequence to human brain functions via the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in a population of modern humans in Central China.
See: Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China
See also: Stability of bioactive compounds in butiá (Butia odorata) fruit pulp and nectar

Pulp pasteurization resulted in a reduction in phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, and ascorbic acid contents.

If the ascorbic acid/vitamin C content of “Sago-Type Palms” was not reduced by pasteurization, Vitamin C and phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid would be the most likely link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to plant microRNAs, which helped to stabilize the energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance in specific human populations. Vitamin C in one population. Phenolics, flavonoids and or carotenoids et al., in others.
In all cases, all populations must eat to reproduce. Dietary phytochemicals have repeatedly been linked to biophysically constrained viral latency by constraints on cell type differentiation.
See also: Regulation of microRNA using promising dietary phytochemicals: Possible preventive and treatment option of malignant mesothelioma.
I typically do not use “case studies” to explain biologically-based cause and effect. However, there are two probable outcomes linked to the two cases of Cytosis that I purchased:

Pathology: An abnormal increase in the number of undifferentiated cell types

Energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency: (aka biologically-based healthy longevity) in the context of the energy-dependent movement of cells between parts of organisms

The link from the creation of sunlight to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA should be clear to all serious scientists. The link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to biophysically constrained viral latency should be equally clear to anyone who plays the cell biology game “Cytosis” and to anyone who reads this review of nutritional epigenetics.

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

Conclusion:

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations exemplify how sensing nutrients and secreting the metabolites of nutrients accomplishes different tasks. Efficient circuits enable the functional flexibility that is required in ever-changing ecologies that cause species diversity. Biophysical constraints on ecological adaptations are exemplified in physical proof which suggests that Kohl’s Laws of Biology (Kohl’s Laws) represent what Darwin called ‘conditions of life.’

Physical proof of species diversity links ecological variations from nutritional epigenetics to 1) biophysically constrained protein folding via 2) atomic level changes in base pairs (i.e., the nucleotides of DNA); 3) amino acid substitutions; 4) changes in the miRNA/mRNA balance; 5) the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones that 6) control the physiology of reproduction, and 7) chromosomal rearrangements that link the reciprocity of these interactions to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes manifested in species diversity. Across-species examples of biologically plausible ecologically validated cause and effect link the physical proof from conserved molecular mechanisms of DNA uptake that extends these representations of nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects to differences in pheromone-controlled morphological and behavioral human phenotypes.

The plausibility and ecological validity of Kohl’s Laws in the context of Darwin’s ‘conditions of life’ can be compared to theories about biologically-based cause and effect in the context of species diversity. In mammals, for example, the explanatory power of a model of ecological variation and biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations became clear with companion papers published in 2013. See for review [30].

The companion papers [162-163] told a new short story of ecological adaptations. In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China. Apparently, the effect of the epiallele was adaptive and it was manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In another mammal, such as the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is probably due to a nutrient-dependent epigenetic effect on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones appear to control the nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected hormone-dependent organization and hormone-activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates and in microbes as previously indicated.

The ecological adaptations, which appear to be manifested in the human population are detailed in these two reports [162-163]. The ecological adaptations are likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. If so, ecological variation probably leads to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction, which is manifested in increasing organismal complexity and species diversity. If not, there may be something as yet unknown about mutations and evolution that makes sense in the light of what is known about nutritional epigenetics and the molecular biology of species from microbes to man.

 

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cryo-EM: More than a suggestion

 
Details in the structure not previously seen reveal how various protein subunits of the twin hexamers latch on to the double helix, via tiny loop-like structures.

What are the subunits of protein?

The subunits of proteins are called amino acids.

I will not stop saying that cryo-EM links what is known about energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from electrons to ecosystems via fixation of amino acid substitutions in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which has been linked to all biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity.

 

And, obviously, serious scientists are not going to stop confirming that fact.

See: Noguchi Y et al, “Cryo-EM structure of Mcm2-7 double hexamer on DNA suggests a lagging-strand DNA extrusion model” appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of October 23, 2017.

See also:

RNA-mediated molecular epigenetics and virus-driven entropy

The Origin of Information (2)

RNA mediated molecular epigenetics and virus driven entropy (video)

For God and Country

Life and death via chemical effects on photosynthesis

Summay: “…chemosignals are a promising approach both to modeling posttraumatic stress disorders in humans [36] and to searching for mehods of their treatment.”
Serious scientists linked the sense of smell in bacteria from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space time continuum.
The fact that food odors and pheromones biophysically constrain cell type differentiation in mammals was first placed into the context of [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] (1994)


For evidence of the link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to all biodiversity, see also: 1994 Effect of atrazine herbicide on growth, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and fatty acid composition in the unicellular green alga Chlorella kessleri

Sublethal atrazine concentrations induced a general inhibition on growth, photosynthesis, and dark respiration in the green alga Chlorella kessleri….. Progressive reduction in protein synthesis was associated with increasing herbicide concentration at all experimental periods. The herbicide had preferential effect on the associated fatty acid composition of total and phospholipids. After 24 and 48 hr the herbicide stimulated fatty acids synthesis at concentrations where photosynthesis was inhibited. Meanwhile, stearic and miristic acids disappeared at 15 μM after 24 hr and the total polyunsaturated fatty acids were not affected after 48 hr. Fatty acid synthesis was sensitive to treatment at 72 hr by 5 and 10 μM atrazine, whereas the total saturated fatty acids were completely inhibited.

Sublethal effects of  chemicals on protein biosynthesis and degradation have been linked to all pathology via the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to mutations and all pathology. For example, this is what must happen to link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from electrons to ecosystems via the chemistry and physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera.

A dietary difference in nematodes links their chemistry of metabolism from what they eat to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in C. elegans and the ecological adaptations manifested in P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.
See other information on biophysically constrained biologically based cause and effect in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.

The epigenetic effects of nutrients on evolved differences in the diet and starch digestion of dogs and wolves (Axelsson et al., ) were detailed at the same time differences in the socialization of these subspecies were attributed to explorations involving only chemosensory input in 3 to 4-week-old wolf pups. For comparison, differences in starch digestion and exploration involving multisensory input in dogs begin a mere 2 weeks later (Lord, ). The differences in nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled socialization, however, extend across a life-time of more aggressive behavior in wolves that have not been domesticated because less digested starch from their diet genetically predisposes infants to first respond to olfactory/pheromonal cues as they initially explore their postnatal environment.

See also: Dogs Recognize Themselves in Test Based on Smell, Not Sight

But, she said, her test and the mirror tests “all show that there’s this selective sensory investigation of something that comes from yourself, but is changed.”

The link from a light-induced change in an endogenous substrate — that comes from yourself — to the physiology of reproduction is changed by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which is linked to all biodiversity.
That fact and facts about intelligence in different species started to become clear when Schrodinger (1944) wrote:

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

Perfect clarity was achieved among all intelligent serious scientists when McEwen et al, (1964) wrote; Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Nothing in life happens outside the context of the ATP-dependent creation of RNA.
Decades later, Roger Penrose wrote:

“How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?” (Roger Penrose 8 August 1991)

See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
The authors linked the sense of smell in bacteria from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space time continuum.
The fact that food odors and pheromones biophysically constrain cell type differentiation in mammals was first placed into the context of [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] (1994) in Russian
Abstract excerpt (in English)

The adaptive role of cytogenetic and other observed pheromonal effects is considered. The possible existence of interorganism systems of genetic regulation is discussed, the search for and study of which may help in more complete understanding of the regularities of functioning of genetic material.

See also: [Cytogenetic effect of volatile components of urine of sexually mature animals on bone marrow cells of young female house mice Mus musculus L] (1996) in Russian

Effects of volatile components of the urine (VCU) of mature male and female CBA/LacStoRap mice on proliferating bone marrow cells in young females of the same line were analyzed.

In 2005,  a 2004 Nobel Laureate and her co-authors caught up to what researchers in Russia had already been claiming for 20 years. See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
See also: Chemosignals from isolated females have antimutagenic effect in dividing the cells of bone marrow from male mice of the CBA strain (2014) with my emphasis

Humans also have various pheromone-induced physiological effects, especially those associated with reproduction [46, 47]. This suggests that the human olfactory system is still an effective pathway for influencing environmental factors on the human nervous system. Various psychoemotional states of the human nervous system can, in turn, disrupt the integrity of the chromosomal apparatus of target cells, for instance lymphocytes [41, 42]. Therefore, studies on the oppositely directional modulation of the mutagenic consequences of stress in rodents with the use of specific, volatile, and zoosocial important chemosignals are a promising approach both to modeling posttraumatic stress disorders in humans [36] and to searching for mehods of their treatment.

[46] is Kohl, J.V., Atzmueller, M., Fink, B., and Grammer, K., Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 2001, vol. 22, pp. 309–321.
See also: Cytogenetic approaches for determining ecological stress in aquatic and terrestrial biosystems (2015)

Genetic monitoring of the environment is an important component in the analysis of the status of the biosystems. Its efficiency depends on the correct choice of (a) natural bioindicator species; (b) appropriate signs reflecting the state of the environment; and (c) appropriate statistical analysis. The assessment of genomes’ integrity plays the key role in the studies of mutagenicity in a polluted environment. We present a step-by-step recommendations for the analysis of the cytogenetic data and discuss the prospects of applying genetic tests for ecological monitoring, based on the example of analysis using crustacean species.

The nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations in all invertebrates and vertebrates were reviewed in the context of: Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction

Future work on O. vulgaris olfaction must also consider how animals acquire the odours detected by the olfactory organ and what kind of odour the olfactory organ perceives. The OL acting as control centre may be target organ for metabolic hormones such as leptin like and insulin like peptides, and olfactory organ could exert regulatory action on the OL via epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on gene expression (Kohl, 2013; Elekonich and Robinson, 2000). — p. 61

See for comparison 1): Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin

“[T]he entire ideology of personalized medicine should be taken with many grains of salt. It’s not useless, it’s useful to sequence thousands of genomes. It’s useful to sequence everyone’s genome. It’s useful and desirable — yet, it’s wrong and to some degree dangerous to think that, by peering into the sequence of the A, G, T, and Cs in your genome, your family doctor is going to tell you how to treat all your conditions and what conditions you are going to develop, and which ones you are not going to develop, and so on.” — Eugene Koonin

See also for comparison 2): Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin

“The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…” — Eugene Koonin

The entire ideology of personalized medicine is based on what is known about how the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight must be linked from endogenous RNA interference and foraging behavior to the physiology of biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. See this 7 minute representation from my Precision Medicine virtual conference presentation. Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (2017)
Do not be surprised if you cannot track the historical record of scientific advances in nutritional epigenetics from 1994 Effect of atrazine herbicide on growth, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and fatty acid composition in the unicellular green alga Chlorella kessleri to the current representations of top-down causation and energy-dependent biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect. There are many pseudoscientists who will do everything possible to prevent you from learning that their ridiculous theories have never been supported by experimental evidence.
See for example: 7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: “Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.”
See also: One crank dies, another rises to take his place by PZ Myers

I was asked to look at a string of comments left on a science article by a fellow going by the pseudonym JVK, and all the Davison traits were there. Pretentious phrasing. Repetition: if the audience didn’t get it the first time, just say the same thing again, twice. A kind of sneering anger that people don’t understand how smart he is. An obsession with one narrow idea, which is his, which explains all of evolution and proves that everyone else is wrong.
Behold James Vaughn Kohl.

Ecological adaptation occurs via the epigenetic effects of nutrients on alternative splicings of pre-mRNA which result in amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all species. The control of the differences in cell types occurs via the metabolism of the nutrients to chemical signals that control the physiology of reproduction.
These facts do not refute evolution; they simply refute the ridiculous theory of mutation-initiated natural selection that most people here were taught to believe is the theory of evolution.
That theory is far too ridiculous to be anything but a joke in the context of biological-based increasing organismal complexity. But here, we have lots of jokers, don’t we? The proof of ecological variation that appears to refute the theory of evolution, which actually refutes itself, is that ecological adaptations occur too fast for mutations to compete with them as a source of anything but diseases and disorders.

Ecological adaptations are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained in the context of biologically based chromosomal inheritance via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. There is only one model for that.
It’s my model:
Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
See for comparison: Interactome analysis reveals ZNF804A, a schizophrenia risk gene, as a novel component of protein translational machinery critical for embryonic neurodevelopment
Reported as: Gene associated with schizophrenia risk regulates neurodevelopment

A gene associated with the risk of schizophrenia regulates critical components of early brain development, according to a new study led by researchers from Penn State University. The gene is involved in the translation of proteins from RNA and in the proliferation and migration of neurons in the brain.

Gene regulation is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. That fact is twisted into this misrepresentation: “The gene is involved in the translation of proteins from RNA and in the proliferation and migration of neurons in the brain.”

What they claim, in the most twisted way possible, is that the energy-dependent RNA-mediated translation of proteins must be linked to ecological adaptations via the proliferation and migration of neurons in the brain.

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Inventing "Transcriptome Trajectory Turning Points"

Summary: They invented the term “Transcriptome Trajectory Turning Points” to prevent others from learning that virus-driven energy theft is the cause of all pathology.
Scientists discover genetic timetable of brain’s aging process

The biggest reorganisation of genes occurs during young adulthood, peaking around age 26, the team found. These changes affected the same genes that are associated with schizophrenia.

The team says this could explain why people with schizophrenia do not show symptoms until young adulthood, even though the genetic changes responsible for the condition are present from birth.

See for comparison: microrna schizophrenia 
 
There is no such thing as a genetic timetable of aging outside the context of epigenetic effects on hormones that affect behavior.
 

Food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance link fixation of experience-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to supercoiled DNA, which protects us from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.

See also:  A genomic lifespan program that reorganises the young adult brain is targeted in schizophrenia

They invented the term “Transcriptome Trajectory Turning Points.” That is typical of what pseudoscientists must do to prevent others from learning that virus-driven energy theft is the cause of all pathology.

See for comparison: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults 

One amino acid substitution in supercoiled DNA can make the difference between healthy longevity and virus-driven pathology at any point in life. That is true for all individuals of all species and all serious scientists are using that fact as they continue Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.

See also: Microbial regulation of microRNA expression in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex

See also: Epigenetic Changes Caused by Occupational Stress in Humans Revealed through Noninvasive Assessment of DNA Methylation of the Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene

See also: A new target for G protein signaling

The structure and mechanism of heterotrimeric G proteins has been studied at atomic resolution (Oldham and Hamm, 2008).

The energy-dependent de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors links the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and the time-space continuum. See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

"Evolution of Man. - Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants.

Science vs Secularism: Molecular Mechanisms or Math?

Summary: An example from ancient knowledge of trigonometry links pattern recognition as the basis for the science of creationism, and pattern recognition also is the basis for molecular biology.
What form of virus-driven pathology would you most like to see eliminated from future consideration by serious scientists who know how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs? In any case, a PubMed search for microRNA and your disease of choice will be enlightening. See for example: microRNA + Alzheimer’s or microRNA + fragile X syndrome; Parkinson’s disease; diabetes; cancer; malaria; and/or other human diseases
See:  Are scientists who speak out against religion hurting science? for discussion of Why religion is not going away and science will not destroy it

…science needs all the friends it can get. Its advocates would be well advised to stop fabricating an enemy out of religion, or insisting that the only path to a secure future lies in a marriage of science and secularism.

Serious scientists have met the enemies of science. One of them is the author of Quantum common sense

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking

More than 64,000 indexed publications on the PubMed site attest to the fact that the energy-dependent de novo creation of plant microRNAs is linked to all healthy longevity via the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Experimentally established facts about the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA are linked to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.

See: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

What form of virus-driven pathology would you most like to see eliminated from future consideration by serious scientists who know how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs? In any case, a PubMed search for microRNA and your disease of choice will be enlightening. See for example: microRNA + Alzheimer’s or microRNA + fragile X syndrome; Parkinson’s disease; diabetes; cancer; malaria; and/or other human diseases
Role of miRNAs in development and disease: Lessons learnt from small organisms

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small (18-22 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and many other small organisms have been instrumental in deciphering the biological functions of miRNAs. While some miRNAs from small organisms are highly conserved across the taxa, others are organism specific. The miRNAs are known to play a crucial role during development and in various cellular functions such as cell survival, cell proliferation, and differentiation. The miRNAs associated with fragile X syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, cancer, malaria, infectious diseases and several other human diseases have been identified from small organisms. These organisms have been used as platforms in deciphering the functions of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of human diseases and to study miRNA biogenesis. Small organisms have also been used in the development of miRNA-based diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. The molecular techniques such as genome sequencing, northern blot analysis, and quantitative RT-PCR, have been used in deciphering the functions of miRNAs in small organisms. How miRNAs from small organisms especially those from Drosophila and C. elegans regulate development and disease pathogenesis is the focus of this review. The outstanding questions raised by our current understanding are discussed.

See for comparison: Quantum Theory Rebuilt From Simple Physical Principles by Philip Ball

“What is needed is new mathematics that will render these notions scientific,” he said. Then, perhaps, we’ll understand what we’ve been arguing about for so long.”

I do not believe that new mathematics will end the arguments, and I do not believe anything Philip Ball claims. Does any intelligent person on Earth believe this claim? “We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking”

For a historical perspective on the nonsense touted by theorists and so-called science journalists, like Philip Ball, see:

Secularism: This ancient Babylonian tablet may contain the first evidence of trigonometry

He and Wildberger concluded that the Babylonians expressed trigonometry in terms of exact ratios of the lengths of the sides of right triangles, rather than by angles, using their base 60 form of mathematics, they report today in Historia Mathematica. “This is a whole different way of looking at trigonometry,” Mansfield says. “We prefer sines and cosines … but we have to really get outside our own culture to see from their perspective to be able to understand it.”

When have serious scientists not gone outside our own culture to understand how the history of human behavioral development has been misrepresented by so-called experts.

See: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome

The findings confirm their earlier work suggesting that the majority of variants, including potentially harmful ones, were picked up during the past 5,000–10,000 years.

Simply put, the harmful variants probably contribute to our relative lack of intelligence compared to the intelligence of our ancestors, unless you think that a single-celled organism is one of your ancestors. Obviously, however, even if that is the case, you are somewhat more intelligent that pond scum. But, let me apologize in advance for referring to you as a “biologically uninformed science idiot” — in the context of the definition of “idiot” as someone with no professional expertise. Apologists might use the term “fool” in the context of this passage from the Holy Bible:

Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die:”

Feynman used the term “human idiocy” in the context of representations made by theoretical physicists:

Prepare yourself to experience more insults from experts who have, during the past 5-10,000 years confirmed the links from energy to physics, chemistry, and molecular biology in the context of food energy and the biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

Apologetics:Indiana Banks and the Tablet of Trig

This story attracted my attention because it is yet more evidence against the Darwinian narrative of human history, which holds that we evolved from apes and have been steadily gaining in technology and science ever since. The reality is very different. The evidence often points to initial brilliance followed by decline, the pattern that creationists would expect. In this instance, extremely ancient people pioneered a form of trigonometry that is more exact than the form used by later Mesopotamian nations and by the Greeks, Romans, and later Western Civilization.

Pattern recognition is the basis for the science of creationism and pattern recognition is the basis for molecular biology.

See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

In their concluding paragraph, the authors link irreverent representations of the space-time continuum (Hawking, 1988) to our visual perception of mass and energy. With no vague representations of untested theories, they suggest that neural energy represents multisensory input at subsecond scales.

If what they suggest is true, their published work is an unprecedented refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense and an unparalleled refutation of “Big Bang” cosmology. Simply put, they concurrently link the creation of energy to the energy-dependent creation of the sense of smell in bacteria. The sense of smell is linked to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera via representations that link neural energy from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA.

For example, the sense of smell in bacteria is linked to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum.

See:Evolutionary Rewiring

Strong selective pressure can lead to rapid and reproducible evolution in bacteria.

Natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality was linked to the ability of P. fluorescens to find food, which was linked to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction by everything known about quorum sensing. But wait, that fact defies attempts to put the refutation of all theories into the context of something as simple-minded as this claim:

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking

For more information on the mutation-driven “dumbing down” of you and your ancestors play the game “Cytosis” when it becomes available later this month and watch for more information on the game “Subatomic.” It is less difficult now than it ever has been to link energy-dependent changes from atoms to ecosystems by what is known to serious scientists. But first, you may need to dismiss the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists.

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.

See also: Protecting 4 billion people from virus-driven entropy September 8, 2016
See also: Recurrence-Based Information Processing in Gene Regulatory Networks

We also show that the readout layer can learn to decode the information stored in the reservoir via standard evolutionary strategies. Our work thus suggests that recurrent dynamics is a key element for the processing of complex time-dependent information by cells.

What evolutionary strategies led to the recurrent dynamics of time-dependent information processing and the use of trigonometry ~5000 years ago?
Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing

It seems that bacteria have some sort of collective memory by which they keep track of how they handled their previous encounters with antibiotics. They know how to collectively glean information from the environment, “talk” with each other, distribute tasks, generate collective memory, and turn their colony into a “cybernetic system”—a massive “brain” that can perform natural distributed information processing, learn from past experience, and possibly alter the genome organization or even create new genes to better cope with novel challenges.8–13,17,18

Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology

Perhaps the elegant mathematics and the extraordinary reputation of the scientists involved blinded us to what now seems obvious: the organism should never have been relegated to the role of mere carrier of its genes.

 
 
 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Sexual communication signals: New Insights!

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge.Kalevi Kull

New insights in the evolution of sexual communication signals

Abstract excerpt:

Our research focuses on identifying a) the genes underlying sexual signals and responses in both sexes2-4, and b) ecological factors that may cause divergence in sexual communication. Factors that we found to affect sexual communication are closely related species with similar mating signals5, low nutritional quality, (toxic) secondary plant metabolites and pathogens6.

Elizabeth Pennisi reported on this 2017 conference presentation and claimed:

The results “demonstrate the importance of the social environment,” Halfwerk says. “One form does not attract males on its own, only in close proximity of the other form.” That result also parallels what’s been found in humans: that an attractive woman in a crowd of less attractive women also seems to attract more attention. But pinning down exactly why this happens should be much easier in moths than people, she notes. “That’s the nice thing about insects.”

See: Sexy females help ‘Plain Jane’ moths snag their mates

No experimental evidence of biologically-based sexual communication suggests that sex signals evolved. The fine-tuned systems of communication among individuals and species pose an evolutionary dilemma because they are food energy-dependent. Ecological variation must be linked from food energy to biophysically constrained ecological adaptations by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Also, everything known to serious scientists about energy-dependent top-down creation links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from the creation of ATP to the creation of messenger RNA. That fact does not appear to be coincidental.

See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Detailed experimental evidence also links the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology. That fact leaves neo-Darwinian theorists and “Big Bang” cosmologists without any acceptable theory of anything or any theory of everything.

See for comparison: A New Physics Theory of Life and Jeremy England’s idea that “You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant.” 

Theorists and philosophers cannot link energy as information or “big bang” cosmology to biodiversity without the creation of energy. Most of them ignore the fact that they do not know where the energy in a hydrogen atom came from.

Without the de novo creation of energy, they cannot link hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution from microRNA flanking sequences to SNPs, and they cannot link food energy as information to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes. For comparison, all serious scientists have linked what is known about the food energy-dependent fixation of amino acid substitutions to the structure and function of supercoiled DNA, and all serious scientists have linked energy-dependent RNA-mediated cause and effect to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

That fact helps to explain why Richard Feynman referred to some theoretical physicists as examples of human idiocy.

See: Food energy

That suggests Elizabeth Pennisi is a biologically uninformed. She reported: “That’s the nice thing about insects.” If she was not a biologically uninformed science idiot, she would have linked food energy to the physiology of reproduction in all invertebrates and vertebrates. That is how the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction is linked from ecological variation to all biodiversity via what is known to all serious scientists about ecological adaptation.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction and Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

For comparison to the science reporting by Elizabeth Pennisi,  J.A. Parker is the only person besides me, who has reported on this 2017 conference presentation:

See also: All in the (bigger) family by Elizabeth Pennisi with my comment:

The 2015 Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (SICB) presenters may not recognize how much progress has been made since the 2013 ecological epigenetics symposium. For example, since then authors claimed “…ctenophore neural systems, and possibly muscle specification, evolved independently from those in other animals.” http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13400

Six months later, other authors traced signaling factors found in vertebrates to the origin of nerve cell centralization via the diffuse nerve net of animals like the sea anemone. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6536 That fact suggests ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations in morphological and behavioral phenotypes via signaling protein concentrations that differentiate various cell types in body axes and the central nervous system.

Links across species from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in organized genomes appear to have their origins in the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated protein folding. Two weeks after the publication that refuted ideas about independently evolved neural systems or muscle specification — and perhaps refuted the independent evolution of anything else, SICB presenters linked crustaceans to insects.

Apparently, they’ve learned that the same set of microRNAs controls expression of the genes for rate-limiting enzymes that control the hormone production of different hormones in insects and crustaceans.

Why were they left with any questions about how crustaceans and insects could all be part of one big family? They linked RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to what we described in our section on molecular epigenetics in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/biblio/articles/1961to1999/1996-from-fertilization.html

See also: Sex differences in microRNA-mRNA networks: examination of novel epigenetic programming mechanisms in the sexually dimorphic neonatal hypothalamus

Integrating miRNAs and their broad actions on gene function into our conceptualization of the factors directing sexual differentiation of the brain could be a highly informative next step in efforts to understand the complexities behind these processes.

They linked sex differences in microRNAs to the sexual differentiation of all cell types in all living genera that sexually reproduce via microRNA-mRNA networks.
See also: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences

…miRNAs can be employed as both qualitative [9] and quantitative markers, with the latter demonstrated clearly here. Our investigation demonstrates the utility of miRNA sequences as classical phylogenetic markers, and shows this usage is robust to different algorithms of phylogenetic analysis and the analysis of fast-evolving lineages. Such a method provides novel characters for assessing phylogenetic relationships that will be of use in a range of contexts for resolving branches across the tree of life.

See also: Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction

Future work on O. vulgaris olfaction must also consider how animals acquire the odours detected by the olfactory organ and what kind of odour the olfactory organ perceives. The OL acting as control centre may be target organ for metabolic hormones such as leptin like and insulin like peptides, and olfactory organ could exert regulatory action on the OL via epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on gene expression (Kohl, 2013; Elekonich and Robinson, 2000).

Kohl (2013) is: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (June 14, 2013)

…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance (Breen, Kemena, Vlasov, Notredame, & Kondrashov, ; Duvarci, Nader, & LeDoux, ; Griggs et al., ; Monahan & Lomvardas, ) in adaptive evolution will certainly be discussed in published works that will follow.

Elekonich and Robinson (2000) cited:  From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
At the time of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review, microRNAs were called pre-mRNAs. See our section on molecular epigenetics:

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

Social odors are still called pheromones and we linked the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all biophysically constrained biodiversity on Earth via sex differences in microRNAs (pre-mRNAs).
The sex differences in microRNAs will soon be linked to sex differences in healthy longevity and to sex differences in diseases in the context of the cell biology game: “Cytosis.” Next, the game “Subatomic” will teach others how to build an atom.
The fact that this invited review linked energy-dependent changes in atoms to ecosystems may still go unnoticed, since the invited review was returned without review.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
But, for God’s sake, see for comparison: 7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman:

“Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.”

Do not ignore the fact that Jay R. Feierman has no understanding of how ecological variation must be linked to energy-dependent ecological adaptation via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
See also: December 5, 2016

[MODERATOR NOTE: I’m not going to post more from Kohl until he answers the very direct and simple question posed to him by anon, which is whether he (Kohl) believes that RNA splicing can change DNA.]

What I believe about RNA splicing is irrelevant unless someone else links the creation of energy to ATP and the creation of RNA outside the context of energy-dependent alternative splicings of pre-mRNA and the link from energy to the creation of the pre-mRNAs and to energy-dependent biophysical constraints on supercoiled DNA in all living genera.

As Heyn points out, “we still do not fully understand the mechanisms that drive epigenetic variation in populations.”

Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links RNA-directed DNA methylation to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. That fact seems to be missing from this representation of a failed paradigm (neo-Darwinian evolution).
Claims that facts about natural selection and epigenetic variation in populations are not fully understood can be viewed in the context of reports by those who understand the facts about Darwin’s “conditions of life.” They are energy-dependent and RNA-mediated
See for example: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition and Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
It has become obvious to all serious scientists that the sense of smell in bacteria must be linked from mRNA stability to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of natural selection across the time-space continuum via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. The complexity of that fact may not be understood by biologically uninformed theorists, but no theorist should claim that the mechanisms of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained cell type differentiation are not understood by all serious scientists.
Re: …a strong link between population-specific DNA methylation, mRNA levels, and genotypes.
See also: Methylation Variation Documented Between Human Populations

“Our analysis of five worldwide populations revealed a strong correspondence between population-specific DNA methylation, [messenger RNA] levels, and genotypes,” the authors wrote. “The correlation with genetic divergence was stronger for DNA methylation, and, consistent with this, our results suggest stronger local genetic control of population-specific DNA methylation levels than of mRNA expression levels.”

The strong link and/or strong correspondence between food energy-dependent DNA methylation, messenger RNA levels and genotypes is biophysically constained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all livng genera. See for example: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle appear to provide the free energy for nuclear ATP synthesis and the food-energy-depenent biosynthesis of messenger RNA. If so, all pathology is caused by the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations but not from ecological variation to ecological adaptations.
See also: Back to Basics: Next-generation sequencing methods and applications (with my emphasis)

…another common NGS application (although one currently more of a research application than a front-line clinical tool) is to examine the transcriptome of a sample—that is, the identity and relative abundance of mRNA transcripts present. Sometimes referred to as “exome sequencing,” this approach is efficient in that it applies resources only to that small portion of the genome which is functionally expressed. Of course, not all significant genetic aberrations occur within coding regions; but by observing levels (or even presence/absence) of transcripts in comparison to reference “normal” conditions, important mutations in non-coding regions such as gene promoters or splice site regulators can be inferred. When such findings are plausibly related to a disease condition, more directed studies to confirm the root cause can then be undertaken as or if needed.

See also: microRNA “exome sequencing Items: 1 to 20 of 55 There is no need to infer that splice site regulators are not food energy-dependent and yet that is what biologically uninformed neo-Darwinian theorists have consistently done with their claims about Mutation-driven evolution. For comparison, all serious scientists are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.
See also: Global Epigenomic Reconfiguration During Mammalian Brain Development July 4, 2013

DNA methylation is implicated in mammalian brain development and plasticity underlying learning and memory. We report the genome-wide composition, patterning, cell specificity, and dynamics of DNA methylation at single-base resolution in human and mouse frontal cortex throughout their lifespan. Widespread methylome reconfiguration occurs during fetal to young adult development, coincident with synaptogenesis. During this period, highly conserved non-CG methylation (mCH) accumulates in neurons, but not glia, to become the dominant form of methylation in the human neuronal genome. Moreover, we found an mCH signature that identifies genes escaping X-chromosome inactivation. Finally, whole-genome single-base resolution 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) maps revealed that hmC marks fetal brain cell genomes at putative regulatory regions that are CG-demethylated and activated in the adult brain, and that CG demethylation at these hmC-poised loci depends on Tet2 activity.

See also: Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 genomes are ancient, intact and potentially able to reactivate from telomeres, which was reported as: “Study of inherited herpes virus finds links to ancient humans” August 30, 2017

We used molecular dating methods to compare, for example, the inherited HHV-6B genomes in five individuals from Sardinia, Orkney and England, and estimated that the most recent common ancestor with the inherited HHV-6B existed 24,500 ±10,600 years ago.

The molecular dating methods are evaluated outside the context of what is known about energy-dependent pheromone-controlled feedback loops, which have been linked from the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum. But, rather than repeat myself, I will simple support my claims with a link to: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants, which was reported in January, 2013, as: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome. The changes can be place into the context of exome sequencing, but not mutation-driven evolution.
The recent origin of most human protein-coding variants can be linked from food energy-dependent changes in exomes that are biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera. The recent origin of the variant can also be linked from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology.

Of 1.15 million single-nucleotide variants found among more than 15,000 protein-encoding genes, 73% in arose the past 5,000 years, the researchers report. 164,688 of the variants — roughly 14% — were potentially harmful, and of those, 86% arose in the past 5,000 years.

See also: Whole-Exome Sequencing Reveals a Rapid Change in the Frequency of Rare Functional Variants in a Founding Population of Humans (2013)
I repeat:

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge.Kalevi Kull
Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Neurosteroids revisited two decades later

See also: Host-derived creation of all pathology (2 of 2)

These two statements are not being linked to the prevention of all disease.

1) “The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.” (1964)

2) “Nucleosome remodelling (NR) regulates transcription in an ATP-dependent manner…” (2017)

See: Cell-targetable DNA nanocapsules for spatiotemporal release of caged bioactive small molecules
The link from olfaction to the space-time continuum via energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference was reported as:
Tiny nanopackages built out of DNA help scientists peek at how neurons work

“There are a host of research problems from cardiology to neurobiology that need a system like this to study very fast molecular phenomena, so it could be applied in a variety of ways.”

Cells talk to each other in chemical whispers that occur too fast for scientists to accurately study, Krishnan said. Her team aimed at one class of such chemical communications, known as neurosteroids.”

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) cited by 42

Though neurosteroids research is relatively new, certain findings already are important. For instance it is now known that (i) the enzymes that produce neurosteroids are transcribed from the same genes that produce gonadal and adrenal steroids (Compagnone, Bulfone, Rubenstein, and Mellon, 1995b; Mellon and Deschepper, 1993); (ii) transcription regulation for neurosteroidal enzymes is different from gonadal and adrenal regulatory processes (Zhang, Rodriguez, and Mellon, 1995); (iii) within discrete brain nuclei, some subareas differ with regard to utilization of neuro- and nonneurosteroids (Compagnone et al., 1995a; Roselli, 1995); and (iv) even early stages in the neurosteroid route from cholesterol to various end-product steroids affect sexual perceptions and behavior (Kavaliers and Kinsella, 1995).

Ramifications of such neurosteroid findings are diverse. For instance, they suggest nuances of reinterpretation may be in order regarding past data from gonadectomy and adrenalectomy experiments. Endogenous neurosteroid production may have contributed to results described in many experiments wherein gonadectomized animals who were subsequently administered powerful cross-hormone regimens nonetheless retained bisexual-like responses both to males and to females (e.g., Brand, Houtsmuller, and Slob, 1993; Vega-Matuszczyk, Fernandez-Guasti, and Larsson, 1988) or they may have effected the persistence of typical sexual activity seen after castration in some species (Young, 1961).

We linked energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference to neurosteroid production and differences in sexual behavior via the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. Food odors and pheromones are chemicals that clearly link the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera.

It’s time to ask yourself why other scientists either ignored, or failed to learn about, our detailed interactions for more than 20 years. Could it be that they did not want you to learn that all life on Earth is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction? That means there is no such thing as mutation-driven evolution. Is that a problem for pseudoscientists?

Mutation-Driven Evolution

See for comparison: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance (Breen, Kemena, Vlasov, Notredame, & Kondrashov, ; Duvarci, Nader, & LeDoux, ; Griggs et al., ; Monahan & Lomvardas, ) in adaptive evolution will certainly be discussed in published works that will follow.

See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception and Time (and space) in the hippocampus

See also: microRNA neurosteroid Items: 1 to 20 of 681 and microRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 64001

With more than 64000 published works on microRNAs, another “tipping point” has been reached just prior to the release of the cell biology game “Cytosis.”

Cytosis

Host-derived creation of all pathology (2 of 2)

Summary: All serious scientists know that all epigenetic diversity is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

See for comparison: Jay R. Feierman: “Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.”

A Bacterial Messenger Molecule Extends Healthspan

…indole, a molecule produced by commensal bacteria, extends “healthspan” not only in mice but in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and in fruit flies as well. Taking away the bacterial production of the molecule ablated these anti-aging gains.

Does anyone need to repeatedly be reminded that food energy is required for the production of any molecule associated with nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled anti-aging gains? The epigenetically effected gains are consistently manifested in the survival of species via the physiology of reproduction.
The food energy-dependent production of indole is the obvious link from nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled feedback loops to biophysically constrained viral latency and ecological adaptation in all living genera. Testing for indole is used to determine the ability of an organism to split (deaminate) the amino acid tryptophan.  Indole contributes to fecal odor and it is a chemical messenger that has been indirectly or directly included in detailed representations of biologically-based pheromone-controlled energy-dependent cause and effect like these.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005)
There is a model for that! See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)
The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans biophysically constrains the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. That fact links constraint-breaking mutations to all pathology in all living genera. A test protocol established that fact in the context of this book chapter, which links the test for indole to differences in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance in humans.

For example, the test protocol links the creation of energy as information to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and links the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology. The complexity of the testing can be reduced via the focus on the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs.

See the abstract:

Disease research and treatment development have turned to the impact and utility of microRNA. The dynamic and highly specific expression of these molecular regulators can be used to predict and monitor disease progression as well as therapeutic treatment efficacy and safety…

MicroRNAs are identified and monitored through the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA)™-based detection probes. The LNA™ technology enhances the sensitivity and specificity of target binding for short, highly similar, microRNA sequences, which help to differentiate cell types in the context of everything known to serious scientists about how to link physics and chemistry from molecular epigenetics to all biodiversity via fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.

The availability of this testing was predicted in: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (7-min video)

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes.

For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

See also: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences
See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
See for comparison: Metabolic, Epigenetic, and Transgenerational Effects of Gut Bacterial Choline Consumption (2017)

There is no such thing as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological or behavioral phenotypes outside the context of feedback loops that link food odors from the metabolism to pheromones and biophysically constrained viral latency. The consumption of choline by bacteria links food energy to protection from viral latency via the test for indole. The virus-driven theft of quantized energy can be linked from reduced amount of choline that link viruses in the bacteria to their ability to overwhelm the immune system. The effects of virus-driven energy theft link the CRISPR-Cas9 technology of gene-editing to DNA repair via exogenous RNA-interference because energy-dependent endogenous RNA-interference protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
Corporate America is not willing to tell the truth about that. You will probably suffer unnecessarily and die prematurely because the goal of every corporation is to make more money.

See also: Americans Are Dying Younger, Saving Corporations Billions

Absent a war or an epidemic, it’s unusual and alarming for life expectancies in developed countries to stop improving, let alone to worsen. “Mortality is sort of the tip of the iceberg,” says Laudan Aron, a demographer and senior fellow at the Urban Institute. “It really is a reflection of a lot of underlying conditions of life.”

Darwin’s “conditions of life” were food energy-dependent. Serious scientists have since learned that all “conditions of life” also are fixed in the organized genomes of all living genera via the physiology of reproduction. Without the link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA, natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality would link mutations to evolution instead of linking mutations to all pathology.

Instead, the reality of cell type differentiation was reported as: Microbes compete for nutrients, affect metabolism, development in mice

 …new research that shows mice that harbor high levels of microbes that eat choline are deprived of this essential nutrient.
 

I placed that fact into the context of this excerpt from my 2013 review: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

Sex-dependent production of a mouse ‘chemosignal’ with incentive salience appears to have arisen de novo via coincident adaptive evolution that involves an obvious two-step synergy between commensal bacteria and a sex-dependent liver enzyme that metabolizes the nutrient chemical choline.

The result of this synergy is (1) a liver enzyme that oxidizes trimethylamine to (2) an odor that causes (3) species-specific behaviors. Thus, the complex systems that biology required to get from nutrient acquisition and nutrient metabolism to species-specific odor-controlled behavior is exemplified by adaptive evolution of an attractive odor to mice that repels rats (see for review Li et al., 2013).

Addendum: Fish odor syndrome is the link from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy. The odor links ecological variation to failed ecological adaptation and all pathology when there is insufficient food energy. Any scientist who does not already know that based on the facts known to every medical laboratory scientist is an example of “human idiocy” (Feynman) or a biologically uninformed science idiot (Kohl).

Serious scientists have begun to effectively use energy-dependent microRNAs to the prevention of all virus-driven pathology. That fact is being reported in the context of gene therapy using ‘junk DNA’  at a time when all serious scientists realize there is no such thing as ‘junk DNA.’

Gene therapy using ‘junk DNA’ could lower risk for heart disease

The LeXis gene belongs to a unique group of genes that until recently were considered “junk DNA” because scientists believed they served little purpose. However, evidence from the human genome project led to the discovery that genes like LeXis are actually active. The study of these genes, now referred to as long noncoding ribonucleic acids, or lncRNAs, is a rapidly evolving area in biology.

Long Noncoding RNA Facilitated Gene Therapy Reduces Atherosclerosis in a Murine Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Long noncoding (lnc) RNAs form the vast majority of transcriptionally active regions and are arbitrary defined as transcripts >200 bps that biochemically resemble mRNA and yet do not template protein.2

Diet and drug-induced changes in LeXis link energy as information to liver X receptor activation of genes via the “promoter binding of RNA-binding proteins.” That fact supports the claim that a transcriptional coactivator for genetically predisposed cholesterol biosynthesis in the mouse liver links promoters, enhancers, quantitative trait loci, et al., to the transciptional coactivator referred to as “Rally” without mention of energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.
If you believe that the long noncoding ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are genes, you may be convinced that mutations in RNA are the same as mutations in genes. But mutations are the cause of all pathology. Linking mutations in RNA to pathology outside the  context of energy-dependent healthy longevity allows others with no expertise in laboratory testing to continue to believe that mutation-driven evolution is the link from natural selection to the origin of new species. That belief is probably common among others who believe that the Universe itself may be conscious.

See for comparison: Scientists Now Believe the Universe Itself May Be Conscious

For the behavior of subatomic particles and the systems they constitute promises to be fully explained by physics and the other physical sciences.

 See for comparison: Subatomic

Subatomic is a deck building game where players are competing to build a number of available atoms. Each player starts with the same small deck of cards that consist of Proton Cards, Neutron Cards, Electron Cards and Energy Cards and a beginning hand limit of 5 cards. They use these cards to build upon their current Atom, in an attempt to construct one of the available Atom Cards, and/or use their hand of cards to purchase more powerful atom building cards for later use, or increase their hand limit. The deck building cards are simple and clean, but offer a number of interesting combinations. Players also have an energy track that allows them to store energy, which introduces a “push-their-luck” type of mechanic enabling players to pay energy to shuffle through their deck quicker, or to offset the cost of more powerful deck building cards.

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking
 

The question arises: “Who needs this kind of nonsense?” Does anyone at any level of examination believe that “the Universe is always looking” is the best representation of what we can expect from a “Conscious Universe?”

See for comparison: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

 Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization Methods for microRNA Biomarker Monitoring of Drug Safety and Efficacy was reported on the Exiqon FB page. Exiqon is a biotechnology company that specializes in RNA products and services. I recommend that they purchase this domain (RNA-mediated.com) in an attempt to promote their products, which obviously link energy-dependent healthy longevity to all biodiversity and also link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.

See also: ‘Chromatin modifiers and remodellers in DNA repair and signalling’ The fact that food energy as information must be linked from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera appears to be the focus of this Theme issue.

But wait: Here is one of the articles from  the Theme issue:

Nucleosome remodelling, DNA repair and transcriptional regulation build negative feedback loops in cancer and cellular ageing

Nucleosome remodelling (NR) regulates transcription in an ATP-dependent manner, and influences gene expression required for development and cellular functions, including those involved in anti-cancer and anti-ageing processes. ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodelling factor (ACF) and Brahma-associated factor (BAF) complexes, belonging to the ISWI and SWI/SNF families, respectively, are involved in various types of DNA repair.

See for comparison, from 1964: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

McEwen et al., knew that “The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.” That statement of fact was the beginning of the abstract from 1964. When he told me my model could not be validated unless I started with energy-dependent gene activation in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, I had no reason to doubt him. When I learned that Robert L. Moss had already linked pheromones to energy-dependent gene activation in GnRH neurons, I continued to pursue top-down causation as if it was energy-dependent — because it obviously is energy-dependent.

I never considered that my model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained gene activation would not be accepted by theorists. See for comparison:

Induction of FOS immunoreactivity in central accessory olfactory structures of the female rat following exposure to conspecific males (1992)

See also: Gonadotropin releasing hormone and human sexual behavior (1991) in Neuropeptides and Psychiatric Disorders (1991)

Is anyone else interested in linking the facts from our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior or from any other works I have published before Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013) to what is known about all biophysically constrained biologically- based cause and effect?
If so, see: Worldwide patterns of human epigenetic variation

We found that population-specific DNA methylation mirrors genetic variation, and has greater local genetic control than mRNA levels. We estimated the rate of epigenetic divergence between populations, which indicates far greater evolutionary stability of DNA methylation in humans than has been observed in plants. This study provides a deeper understanding of worldwide patterns of human epigenetic diversity…

All serious scientists know that all epigenetic diversity is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
See for comparison: 7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
See for comparison: Quantum Biology: An Introduction (video) by Philip Ball and Quantum common sense

To turn quantum to classical, we don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look; we just need an environment full of stuff. With or without us, the Universe is always looking.

See also these restricted and unrestricted articles: ARTICLES