Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Is meat protein unhealthy? (2)

See also: Microbiome-Grade DNA Extraction Kits

…the thermal and chemical methods effectively lyse the gram-negative organisms and boost their population in the final profile, amplifying the bias.

This suggests that all links from food energy-dependent de novo creation of the pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained bull sperm microRNAome have been misinterpreted in the context of virus-driven fescue toxicosis.

The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

…the miRNA profile of mature ejaculated sperm may in fact have downstream consequences upon embryonic development. The potential for sperm miRNA affecting zygote development has recently been reported in the literature [18] and has interesting implications for the use of sperm miRNA profiles as indicators of potential male fertility.

Fescue toxicosis links the virus-driven creation of enzymes to the degradation of messenger RNA in bull sperm and to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of mutations, which all serious scientists have linked from damage to supercoiled DNA to all pathology in humans and other species.

Eating the meat from other animals that have not ecologically adapted to the virus-driven theft of quantized energy has been linked from the viruses in their genomes to human pathology via the degradation of messenger RNA in bacteria that become archaea and L-forms.

See also: Dobzhansky (1973)

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

See also: The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen

The presence of viruses in semen is probably more widespread than currently appreciated, and the absence of virus in genital secretions should not be assumed for traditionally non–sexually transmitted viruses. The investigation of virus detection and persistence in semen across a range of viruses is useful for clinical and public health reasons, in particular for viruses that lead to high mortality or morbidity rates or to epidemics.

No serious scientist has ever reported a link from the Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor to the evolution of anything except pathology. All serious scientists have, for comparison, linked ecological variation to food energy-dependent  polycombic ecological adaptations via biophysically constrained viral latency in species from microbes to humans.

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation…

See also: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game for ages 10+

 A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Is meat protein unhealthy? (1)

Patterns of plant and animal protein intake are strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality
Reported as: Meat protein is unhealthy, but protein from nuts and seeds is heart smart

In the context of everything known about how the creation of anti-entropic virucidal light must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, watch this ridiculous misrepresentation of the honeybee model organism. Food energy-dependent microRNA-mediated pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency is portrayed as if visual input was most important.

Bee swarms work like giant brains

See instead:

RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry

RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry (2)

Psychophysical Laws of Biology: RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry (3)

Learn how to prevent more school shootings via what is known about how the “Psychophysical Laws” of Biology are linked to food energy-dependent biophysically constrained behaviors via microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation and the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions like COMT Val158Met during the transition from adolescence to adulthood.

Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults (Epub Oct 16 2014)

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Psychophysical Laws of Biology: RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry (3)

Psychophysical Laws and the Superorganism  (open access)

…superorganisms may also exhibit such behaviour, suggesting that these laws arise from fundamental mechanisms of information processing and decision-making.

Reported on Jun 14, 2013 as Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

and again on: Mar 27, 2018 as Honeybees may unlock the secrets of how the human brain works

The study… found that superorganisms may obey the same laws as the human brain.

Kohl’s “Laws of Biology” and Darwin’s “conditions of life” can now be compared in the context of how quantized energy as information was linked to biodiversity in this invited review of nutritional epigenetics: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)
See also for review:

Functional and evolutionary aspects of chemoreceptors (2012)
Sensory receptors—design principles revisited (2013)
Moving forward: See: Tuning Insect Odorant Receptors (in press)

Among the insect olfactory receptors the odorant receptors (ORs) evolved in parallel to the onset of insect flight. A special property of this receptor type is the capability to adjust sensitivity of odor detection according to previous odor contacts. This article presents a current view on regulatory processes affecting the performance of ORs and proposes a model of mechanisms contributing to OR sensitization.

Future attempts to place psychophysical laws of biology back into the context of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense will continue to pit ridiculous theories about experience-dependent tuning of odor receptors against everything known to serious scientists about RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency and supercoiled DNA.
See for comparison:
Bacterial self-organization: co-enhancement of complexification and adaptability in a dynamic environment (2003)
Seeking the foundations of cognition in bacteria: From Schrödinger’s negative entropy to latent information (2006)
Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (2009)
Stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype (2016)

Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse – Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition (MET) – are hallmarks of cellular plasticity during embryonic development and cancer metastasis.

Cellular plasticity was linked from the energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum.
See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception (2017)

The behavioral gain produced by a congruent relative to an incongruent odor is accompanied by elevated neural oscillatory power around the object’s flicker frequency in the right temporal region ~150-300 ms after object onset, and is not mediated by visual awareness. In parallel, odors bias the subjective duration of visual objects without affecting one’s temporal sensitivity.

See also: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
The scheduled speakers will undoubtedly link the Science Behind the Game “Cytosis” to the Science Behind the Game “Subatomic” via everything known to all serious scientists based on Schrodinger’s prescient claims in What is Life? (1944).
See also: What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy

The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

See also “Outer Membrane Vesicles” microRNA (4 of 4 from a 3/27/18 search)

How Our Other Genome Controls Our Epi-Genome (2016)

Secretable Small RNAs via Outer Membrane Vesicles in Periodontal Pathogens (2017)

Tiny RNAs and their voyage via extracellular vesicles: Secretion of bacterial small RNA and eukaryotic microRNA (2017)

Molecular Paths Linking Metabolic Diseases, Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Enterobacteria Infections (2018)

See also: March 28, 2018 sponsored by System Biosciences
Webinar: Deciphering how bacteria utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) to communicate and infect
 
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are membrane vesicles secreted by bacteria that contain DNA, RNA, proteins and endotoxins. Bacteria respond to many environmental factors by secreting specifically-enriched OMVs, which makes these bacteria more fit for their environment. For example, OMVs may be enriched with invasion proteins at the host-pathogen interface. OMVs have recently gained attention as a novel mechanism for transmission of molecular information within bacteria as well as between bacteria and mammalian cells. Owing to their similarities to well-studied extracellular vesicles (EVs), OMVs are being utilized by researchers to study host-bacterial interactions in pathogenesis, cancer therapy, host immune response modulation, as well as bacterial OMV engineering for use as vaccines. This webinar will give an overview of recent studies on the role of OMVs in host-pathogen interactions and discuss their bioengineering potential as vehicles for cargo delivery. We will also introduce our new & revolutionary ExoBacteria™ OMV Isolation Kit, which will enable you to achieve faster, simpler & better OMV isolation.
Learn how OMVs are being utilized by researchers to study host-bacterial interactions in pathogenesis, cancer therapy, host immune response modulation, as well as bacterial OMV engineering for use as vaccines.