Science after peer review

Light-activated error-free DNA repair (4)

Summary: Most of what you probably thought was about science is based on the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by biologically uninformed theorists. Attempts to mine data from any peer-reviewed article that has been published by a theorist should start with the first article that linked energy-dependent life to the creation of uranium isotopes.

See: PLOS & The Hacker Within: mining scientific articles tutorial & hackathon

See for comparison: microRNA

See: Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

This was reported as: Biologists discover electric bacteria that eat pure electrons rather than sugar, redefining the tenacity of life

Editor’s Note: This article originally appeared in the October 2005 issue of Scientific American.

See also the reappearance in 2009: The Workings of an Ancient Nuclear Reactor 

In 2005, this was published: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

 

The  food energy-dependent link from electrons to ecosystems in all living genera escaped from the ridiculous misrepresentations of theorists who linked emergence to evolution. Serious scientists clarified the fact that all organism must eat or their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction does not represent healthy longevity. For comparison, ecological variation and ecological adaptation have consistently been placed into the context of what organisms eat — even if they eat electrons — and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction that biophysically constrains viral latency.

See for comparison: Discussion of Seeing the Beautiful Intelligence of Microbes

Issaiah Wallace Why is it that the only info I can find on “virus-driven energy theft” is yours?No one else is smart enough?

Issaiah Wallace If you’re saying every pathology has a viral etiology, then you’re simply wrong.

People who tell me I’m wrong typically do not tell me what I am wrong about. That makes me think they know nothing about the topic. See for comparison: Chemists reveal one mechanism of dihydrogen production by nitrogenase

The results of the experiments suggested that only one hydrogen was actually involved in the rate-limiting step of H2 formation, and not two as the stoichiometry of the reaction indicates.
This experimental evidence fits well with the fact that the energy-dependent creation of only one enzyme is required to link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. In this report, however, they claim:

There is still work to be done to understand the mechanism of the other H2 evolution process that leads to N2 binding, activation, and reduction to NH3.

I do not believe that two different types of hydrogen evolved.SARCASM ALERT: But maybe that’s what I’m wrong about.But see: Promises and Challenges in Continuous Tracking Utilizing Amino Acids in Skin Secretions for Active Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication for Cybersecurity (with my emphasis)

Figure 1. Biocatalytic cascade for optical detection of three amino acids, using two detection pathways: A) measurement of NADH at 340 nm, and B) conversion of NADH to a visible color (formazan) via NBT/PMS which is observable at 580 nm.As shown in Figure 1, amino acids (glutamate, in this case) can be analyzed in two ways. Pathway A utilizes the UV properties of NADH alone, which can be observed[47] at 340 nm. Pathway B implements phenazine methosulfate (PMS) and Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT). Here, PMS mediates the reaction of NADH reducing NBT to a colored product, formazan, which can be measured spectrophotometrically at 580 nm. Changing the starting enzyme and other chemicals as appropriate, the system can be adapted for the detection of alanine and phenylalanine using the same method. Alanine can be analyzed using an enzyme system containing alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH; E. C. 1.4.1.1). AlaDH consumes alanine and NAD+ to produce pyruvate (Pyr), NH3nine and NAD+, and NADH. Phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH; E. C. 1.4.1.20) produces phenylpyruvate (PhPyr), NH3, and NADH in the presence of phenylala. These two systems can be devised similarly to the glutamate cascade, with either pathway A, direct observation of NADH at 340 nm,[47] or pathway B, conversion of NADH to formazan via NBT/PMS which is observable at 580 nm.[48]

Cytosis

From base editing to RNA editing (2)

Summary: The link from the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of all living genera is all that is required to claim adaptation for comparison to Koonin’s moronic assertion that the amino acid composition of proteins varies because the composition evolved.
Digital reconstruction of the Ceprano calvarium (Italy), and implications for its interpretation

A “fresh” (i.e., not yet “fossil”) bone can be plastically deformed before it breaks because it is still rich in collagen and because the calcium crystals that constitute large part of the bony matrix are not yet substituted by other minerals, as happens during the process of mineralization34. Such a diagenetic process may occur in environments that are rich in water, like a riverbed or a perilacustrine paleosol; the latter was probably the case in the Ceprano area5.

The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links the diagenetic process in living tissue links to the fossil record via changes that appear to have occurred during the past 5-10,000 years.
See for instance: MicroRNA-32 promotes calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells: Implications as a novel marker for coronary artery calcification
The increased level of calcification in smooth muscle cells, which is associated with increased rates of coronary artery calcification is a clear indicator that the proliferation of viruses in organized genomes causes the negative supercoiling of DNA, which serious scientists have linked to all pathology.
See also: A Post Mortem Case Study: Diffuse Pulmonary Ossification and Sudden Death
Case studies have no explanatory power outside the context of models that link electrons to ecosystems in all living genera. In this case study, it is clear that the pulmonary ossification and sudden death can be placed into the context of my model of nutritional epigenetics.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

Attempts to support theories about random mutations and evolution have failed miserably and have largely been replaced with facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
See: RNA Editing Possible with CRISPR-Cas13

The tool itself could be further developed, adds computational biologist Eugene Koonin of the National Center for Biotechnology Information who also was not involved in the study. “This paper is not the end of the road,” he says. It’s possible that Cas13b could be fused to a variety of editing enzymes that would allow a range of different sequence changes. The possibilities are numerous, Koonin says, and “the best is still to come.”

This paper is the end of the road for pseudoscientists and biologically uninformed theorists, like Eugene Koonin, who made this ridiculous claim in 2005:
Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve. –Jordan et al., (2005) A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution
See for comparison: The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis… (2015) — Eugene Koonin
See also Koonin’s attack on all models of ecological adaptation: Splendor and misery of adaptation, or the importance of neutral null for understanding evolution (2016)

…population genetic theory, combined with the data of comparative genomics, clearly indicates that such a “pan-adaptationist” approach is a fallacy. The proper question is: how has this sequence evolved? And the proper null hypothesis posits that it is a result of neutral evolution: that is, it survives by sheer chance provided that it is not deleterious enough to be efficiently purged by purifying selection. To claim adaptation, the neutral null has to be falsified.

The link from the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of all living genera is all that is required to claim adaptation for comparison to Koonin’s moronic assertion that the amino acid composition of proteins varies because the composition evolved.
Each time a new claim attests to the facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained cause and effect, remember how long those facts have been placed on hold by people like Eugene Koonin and Jay R. Fiereman, who is the moderator of the International Society for Human Ethology’s Yahoo Group.
See this attempt to discuss mysterious DNA changes with Jay R. Feierman who on 7/25/13 wrote:

Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.

All DNA modifications are energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. Publications in Science and Nature attest to the foolishness of those who have tried to link base editing and RNA editing to human cell type differentiation without starting with the fact that RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions are food energy-dependent.
Clearly there are no mysterious stress-linked DNA modifications. Nutrient stress and/or social stress cause the proliferation of viruses. Typically the proliferation of viruses is biophysically constrained by food energy and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See “Cytosis” for the game-ending details that placed the nonsense about neutral null falsification back into the historical perspective of the “Dark Ages.”
See also: Tempo and mode of genome evolution in a 50,000-generation experiment (with my emphasis)

Evidence for beneficial mutations

We sought to understand what proportion of the genomic changes in the non-mutator populations was adaptive, and how that proportion changed over time. One line of evidence derives from the expectation that synonymous substitutions—point mutations in protein-coding genes that do not affect the amino-acid sequence—are neutral and should therefore accumulate at a rate equal to the underlying mutation rate20,35. This expectation is not strictly true owing to selection on codon usage, RNA folding, and other effects, but it is generally thought that such selection is extremely weak, affects only a small fraction of sites at risk for synonymous mutations, or both 36,37.

RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry is biophysically constrained. It is nutrient energy-dependent and biodiversity is controlled by the energy-dependent physiology of reproduction. In 2015, Lenski’s group admitted to their lie about the beneficial mutations, with the claim “This expectation is not strictly true owing to selection on codon usage…”
No beneficial mutations have been found by serious scientists. But Lenski’s group clearly indicated they would continue to lie about all aspects of energy-dependent biodiversity. They hoped to make it appear that all energy-dependent biodiversity emerged and then automagically evolved. If they could do that, they knew that their idiot minions were not likely to examine selection for energy-dependent codon usage. But then,
See for comparison: The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations
After 10,000 more generations, Lenski’s group reported that standard models of mutation-driven evolution has not been supported by their experimental evidence. Instead, they placed their results into the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon usage and long-term adaptation, which obviously occurred outside the context of mutation–selection balance and neutral mutation accumulation.
They clearly indicated that the complexity of ecological variation and energy-dependent ecological adaptation must be considered before reporting anything in the context of natural genetic variation. Simply put, they refuted all the pseudoscientific nonsense their past claims caused to be touted by other biologically uninformed theorists. They reported that ecological adaptation occurs outside the context of the mutations and evolution.
But see: Molecular evolution: No escape from the tangled bank

Ecological interactions emerge spontaneously in an experimental study of bacterial populations cultured for 60,000 generations, and sustain rapid evolution by natural selection.

The claim that there is no escape from the tangled bank is true. Joshua B. Plotkin took Lenki’s group’s refutation of mutation-driven evolution and placed it back into the context of the spontaneous emergence of energy-dependent ecological interactions. And then, he again touted the nonsense about evolution by natural selection.
See also: Rapid and Inexpensive Evaluation of Nonstandard Amino Acid Incorporation in Escherichia coli (2017)

…we developed a toolkit for characterizing any Escherichia coli OTS that reassigns the amber stop codon (TAG). It assesses OTS performance by comparing how the fluorescence of strains carrying plasmids encoding a fused RFP-GFP reading frame, either with or without an intervening TAG codon, depends on the presence of the nsAA. We used this kit to (1) examine nsAA incorporation by seven different OTSs, (2) optimize nsAA concentration in growth media, (3) define the polyspecificity of an OTS, and (4) characterize evolved variants of amberless E. coli with improved growth rates.

Even with the tools available, which have refuted all ridiculous theories of mutation-driven evolution, the claims that variants “evolved” continues to plague all serious scientists. It seems that placing the claims that variants evolved into the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera serves no purpose. However, even if biologically uninformed science idiots are not willing to admit that top-down causation requires first consideration for the energy source, there is hope for the future. Most people intuitively understand that the food energy from what organisms eat must be linked to the metabolism of food and the metabolism of food to species-specific pheromones is the only known link from the physiology of reproduction to all biophysically constrained biodiversity in the context of viral latency.
Epigenetic effects must be linked to affects on behavior and the difference between an effect on hormones and an affect of hormones on behavior must be considered in the context of how food odors and pheromones are linked to the physiology of human reproduction by serious scientists.
For example, see: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
 
 

For God and Country

Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (5)

Summary: If a player starts with evolution instead of the creation of energy that links ATP to the creation of RNA, the player is a loser.
Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull
Secular: Ancient Viruses Are Buried in Your DNA (2017) by Carl Zimmer

…early embryos may have come to depend on the tricks viruses use to manipulate them. “We’re exploiting a property that has evolved for the virus’s benefit,” Dr. Katzourakis said.

Science fiction novelist: The Darwin Code by Greg Bear

In 1996, I proposed to my publishers a novel about the coming changes in biology and evolutionary theory. The novel would describe an evolutionary event happening in real-time–the formation of a new sub-species of human being. What I needed, I thought, was some analog to what happens in bacteria. And so I would have to invent ancient viruses lying dormant in our genome, suddenly reactivated to ferry genes and genetic instructions between humans.

To my surprise, I quickly discovered I did not have to invent anything. Human endogenous retroviruses are real, and many of them have been in our DNA for tens of millions of years. Even more interesting, some have a close relationship to the virus that causes AIDS, HIV.

Serious Young Earth Creationist: Did God Make Pathogenic Viruses? (1999)

…viruses are not living, and in order to reproduce and to make ATP, they require all of the complex cellular machinery present in bacterial cells.

Serious scientist: Where do viruses come from? (2004)

“Viruses tend to keep nutrients away from the big stuff and keep them going around in the little stuff,” says Fuhrman. If so, viruses have shaped the entire structure of the ecosystem.’ — Holmes, B., Who Rules the Waves? New Scientist 152(2054):8–9, supp, 1996

Serious Young Earth Creationist/Scientist: Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk

So, where do viruses come from that essentially share the same sequences as those found in their host genomes? Perhaps the evolutionists have placed the cart before the horse on this issue, as proposed by several creationist scientists.4,6 In fact, in an ironic twist, the evidence mentioned above indicates that viruses likely arose from their hosts and not the other way around. As molecular biologist and biochemist Peter Borger notes, “The most parsimonious answer is: the RNA viruses got their genes from their hosts.”6

Secular/Young Earth Creationist: Celebrate Your Inner Virus (2017)

It is important that we understand the design present in viruses because God made them. All creatures of our God demonstrate his handiwork, and viruses are no different.

Infographic: Evolving Virulence

…under natural conditions, a newly emergent, highly lethal pathogen that kills very rapidly is expected to evolve lower virulence. At the same time, however, the host species is evolving resistance to the infection…

Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality biophysically constrains viral latency in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. See: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition and Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
My comment to The Scientist:

Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution (2013)

“The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.”

One nutrient energy-dependent change in a base pair is linked to fixation of the amino acid substitution in the virus and one nutrient energy-dependent change in a base pair is linked from the physiology of pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to fixation of amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of hosts. Fixation is a function of the innate immune system, which  biophysically constrains viral latency.

Simply put, it’s “All about that base” See also: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

Nutrient stress and social stress act on the same molecular mechanisms that link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology. That fact can now be examined in the context of everything know about how the cryo-EM technology links energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction. Alternatively, everything known to serious scientists about ecological variation and energy-dependent ecological adaptations can be place back into the context of ridiculous theories about evolution.

See for example, these claims about a model for how the brain controls foraging.
Brain modelling: Does the brain control foraging?

The brain might instead act as a mediator between controlling factors in the environment and behavioural output. Perhaps, like evolution, it functions as a tinkerer, equipped with a range of signalling or other mechanisms that allow adaptation (see F. Jacob Science 196, 1161–1166; 1977).

Claims that the brain evolved have been replaced by claims that the brain is an energy-dependent ecological adaptation. Claims about its ability to function as a tinkerer have been replaced with facts that link electrons to ecosystems via the 2017 Nobel Prize-winning technology called cryo-EM. Developers of the technology won the Prize in Chemistry.
Cryo-EM can now be viewed in this context of biophyiscally constrained protein folding chemistry and claims from 2005.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
The claims about feedback loops can be placed into the context of what anyone who is 10 years-old can learn about cell biology and virus-driven energy theft by playing the game “Cytosis.”
If a player starts with evolution instead of the creation of energy that links ATP to the creation of RNA, the player is a loser.

diseases-disorders

Your indifference is killing you and others

Summary: Coherence-inducing mechanisms is double-speak for mechanisms that are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.
Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction has been presented in double-speak as Looplessness in networks is linked to trophic coherence

We are currently studying the entropy of the coherence ensemble we defined for this work. “In general, higher trophic coherence would be associated with lower entropy states, which means that if networks are more coherent than the random expectation there must indeed be some kind of negentropic process at work.” Johnson notes that the impact in this case relative to trophic coherence would be found in quantifying the extent to which different empirical networks have been driven from their maximum entropy state. “This might be the best way of discovering when there are coherence-inducing mechanisms at work, how much energy must be involved, and ultimately identifying the nature of such processes.”

Feedback loops link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the food that organisms eat to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera. The virucidal effect of ultraviolet light biophysically constrains viral latency. Energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA are fixed in organized genomes via the physiology of reproduction and supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
Coherence-inducing mechanisms is double-speak for nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. 
Despite the validity of the model, it has not been accepted by neo-Darwinian theorists or “Big Bang” cosmologists. Ridiculous beliefs about emergence and evolution are pervasive and the pseudoscientific nonsense of their theories leads to claims about coherence-inducing mechanisms.
That is why I changed the FB page description at RNA-mediated after a series of posts (see below).

It took 20 years for others to realize that all life on Earth is food energy-dependent. Now, most people are indifferent to that fact. They refuse to learn anything about where the food energy comes from.

Differences in the energy of photons have been linked to quantized energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. The substitutions biophysically constrain supercoiled DNA via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Virus-driven energy theft links the degradation of messenger RNA to mutations via amino acid substitutions in viruses. The substitutions in the viruses have been linked to all pathology via changes in the energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance.

For comparison, the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian theories links mutations from natural selection to the evolution of new species. In reality, light energy is quantized information. The information links physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics from the speed of light on contact with water and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to learning, memory, and behavior via RNA-mediated events such as the energy-dependent creation of enzymes and the the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors such as olfactory receptor genes.

Top-down causation and de novo gene creation are exemplified by energy-dependent differences in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance that link natural selection for codon optimality to amino acid substitutions that link the physiology of reproduction to supercoiled DNA. Supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft. That fact supports the beliefs of young earth creationists, which may be the only existing basis for discussion of quantum biology and refutations of neo-Darwinian theories that have linked olfaction to quantum souls. If there is another basis for the link from quantum physics to quantum souls, no one has detailed in in the context of top-down causation, which must include information about the creation of genes.

Most people seem unwilling to accept experimental evidence that attests to how genes are created or information that shows how virus-driven energy theft is linked to all pathology. Discussion of the energy-dependent paradigm shift would lead others away from pseudoscientific nonsense about emergence and/or beneficial mutations and evolution.

Only via discussion of facts about the paradigm shift will others learn what is currently known to serious scientists about the biophysically constrained nutrient energy-dependent chemistry of RNA-methylation and all biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Simply put, the protein folding chemistry must be linked to all biodiversity by the physiology of energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera.

Your indifference to that fact is killing people.

See for comparison: Looplessness in networks is linked to trophic coherence (May 16, 2017)

Our theory correctly classifies a variety of networks-including those derived from genes, metabolites, species, neurons, words, computers, and trading nations-into two distinct regimes of high and low feedback and provides a null model to gauge the significance of related magnitudes. Because trophic coherence suppresses feedback, whereas an absence of feedback alone does not lead to coherence, our work suggests that the reasons for “looplessness” in nature should be sought in coherence-inducing mechanisms.

Reported August 14, 2017 as Trophic coherence explains why networks have few feedback loops and high stability

The researchers are also investigating whether negentropy – the opposite of entropy, and in which a physical, thermodynamic or biological process creates order – are affected by trophic coherence. “The modern concept of entropy,” Johnson points out, “comes from statistical physics and is a property of ensembles, as described above – that is, the entropy of an ensemble is simply a function of the number of elements it contains.” Moreover, he adds, graph ensemble entropy has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding various network properties. We are currently studying the entropy of the coherence ensemble we defined for this work. “In general, higher trophic coherence would be associated with lower entropy states, which means that if networks are more coherent than the random expectation there must indeed be some kind of negentropic process at work.” Johnson notes that the impact in this case relative to trophic coherence would be found in quantifying the extent to which different empirical networks have been driven from their maximum entropy state. “This might be the best way of discovering when there are coherence-inducing mechanisms at work, how much energy must be involved, and ultimately identifying the nature of such processes.”

See for comparison: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

These studies also indicate that GnRH neurons are likely to influence numerous brain functions. They appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions (Badr and Pelletier, 1987; Jennes et al., 1988; Jennes et al., 1997). BL+ neurons likely to receive synaptic input from GnRH neurons were seen in areas associated with numerous different functions, including odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, appetite, defensive behavior, motor programs, and the relay of information to higher cortical areas. These results may reflect a strategy wherein GnRH neurons can modify diverse functions in order to coordinate the internal state of the animal and its behavior with reproduction in order to optimize reproductive success.

See my posts on Discovering Vismodegib in the Fight Against Skin Cancer: The First Approved Inhibitor of the Hedgehog Pathway
No one I know is likely to understand this link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to prevention of all pathology because they must first understand the fact that proteins do not create themselves. There is no need for this inhibitor of the Hedgehog pathway or inhibition of any other pathway if cancer is prevented. But most people are not willing to learn about prevention because they think they can rely on medical practitioners to effectively treat their diseases. Do you think that your physician knows anything about light scattering characterization of glycoproteins and their interactions with other proteins and antibodies?
Absolute Characterization of Glycoproteins and their Interactions with Proteins and Antibodies by Light Scattering
Light scattering can now be linked to the characterization of glycoproteins and their immune system interactions in all species on Earth. That suggests the speed of light on contact with water links energy as information to the de novo creation of the glycoproteins,
If so, the physiology of reproduction links pheromones to biophysical constraints on the creation of more glycoproteins in the context of morphological and behavioral differences in species from microbes to humans. That suggests the refutation of neo-Darwinism is complete, since the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology in bacteria that become archaea before virus-driven energy theft causes them to become L-forms.
Simply put, Carl Woese was wrong. There is only one domain of life and virus-driven energy theft is what destroys all life on Earth.

 

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (10)

Summary: The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…— Eugene Koonin
My comment: Viruses are not life forms. They steal the quantized energy that links sunlight to viral latency in the context of everything known to all serious scientists about the fact that Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
See for comparison: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception Energy as information links the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum and food odors that link the physiology of reproduction in bacteria to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera.
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Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (9)

2010 A single amino acid substitution confers enhanced methylation activity of mammalian Dnmt3b on chromatin DNA

…the I662N substitution in mammalian Dnmt3b conferred enhanced chromatin DNA methylation activity and contributed to functional adaptation in the epigenetic system.

Energy-dependent amino acid substitutions link what organisms eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and chromosomal rearrangements that have been linked to all biodiversity via the sense of smell in bacteria and quorum sensing.
2013 Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

CONCLUSION:

An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively fit individuals across species of vertebrates.

2013 The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
2017 Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention

There are at least four sources of R mutations in normal cells: quantum effects on base pairing (30), mistakes made by polymerases (31), hydrolytic deamination of bases (32), and damage by endogenously produced reactive oxygen species or other metabolites (33).

2015 Visualizing transient Watson-Crick-like mispairs in DNA and RNA duplexes

…their covalently bonded 13C/15N nuclei were assigned using heteronuclear single/multiple quantum coherence correlation experiments (HSQC or HMQC).

2017 Nature does not rely on long-lived electronic quantum coherence for photosynthetic energy transfer

…/the observed extremely fast decoherence should be viewed as general, bringing to question any significant quantum coherent transport contributions to photosynthesis.

2017 Recent progress on the effects of microRNAs and natural products on tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition
My summary: Two researches in NATURE denied the role that microRNAs play epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumors and their denial of everything known about food energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone-contolled biodiversity is discussed in this review. See for comparison the section on Regulation of miRNA on EMT in tumors
The role of miRNA/ZEB in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, in breast cancer, in lung cancer, in pancreatic cancer and in bladder cancer was anticipated in reports by serious scientists such as the late Eshel Ben-Jacob. See: MicroRNA-based regulation of epithelial–hybrid–mesenchymal fate determination, which was reported as:

They found that there is a molecular “on” and “off” switch that cancer cells use to determine their fate. Evidently, there is an on or off state for metastasis (migration), but also a third possibility, according to this recently-discovered molecular data.

The researchers discovered that there was an intermediate function, which is termed a “ternary,” or three-way switch. This function relates to the fact that ZEB has the ability to turn itself on due to a positive feedback system. This allows a cell to keep intermediate levels of all four proteins required for the switch. Ben-Jacob notes that the hybrid, or partially on-off state, also supports cancer metastasis by enabling collective cell migration and by imparting stem-cell properties that help migrating cancer cells evade the immune system and anticancer therapies.

See also: Stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype

Our results suggest that partial EMT, i.e. a hybrid E/M phenotype, need not be ‘metastable’, and strengthen the emerging notion that partial EMT, but not necessarily a complete EMT, is associated with aggressive tumor progression.

The food energy-dependent stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype has been linked from photosynthesis to the creation of energy-dependent microRNAs in plants and in animals via what has been known to all serious scientists about the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in bacteria.
See:
2003 Bacterial self-organization: co-enhancement of complexification and adaptability in a dynamic environment
2006 Seeking the foundations of cognition in bacteria: From Schrödinger’s negative entropy to latent information
2009 Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing with my emphasis

Focusing on the energy, matter, and thermodynamic imbalances provided by the environment, Schrodinger proposed that life required the consumption of negative entropy, that is, the use of thermodynamic imbalances in the environment. From the perspective of thermodynamics, each bacterium can be viewed as a complex system that is composed of an “engine” that uses imbalances in the environment to do work, and a “machine” that uses this energy (to act against the natural course of entropy increase) for the synthesis of organic substances.13 A third information-processing system is also needed for the coordination and synchronization of the functioning of the engine and the machine. Namely, a living cell is analogous to a complex man-made cybernetic system, or a “chimera,” composed of information processing systems and of at least two thermodynamic elements. In addition, using the outer membrane, cells sense the environment.

We proposed that, besides “negative entropy,” organisms sense the environment to extract latent embedded information.13 By latent information we refer to data embedded in the environment that, once processed cognitively, initiates change in the organism’s function or behavior. Information induces changes; hence it can be used to generate an internal condensed description (model or usable information) of the environment, which guides the organism’s functioning.

Conclusion: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception Energy as information links the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum and food odors that link the physiology of reproduction in bacteria to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See for comparison (Koonin is a co-author): On the Origin of Reverse Transcriptase-Using CRISPR-Cas Systems and Their Hyperdiverse, Enigmatic Spacer Repertoires
…another cause of the lack of detectable protospacers is likely to be the existence of a virtually untapped pool of mobile genetic elements that, at any given time, are not represented in a given environment (10). This paucity of spacer matches is conceivably explained by the vastness and diversity of viromes…
Biologically uninformed evolutionary theorists have failed to link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun to all biodiversity and failed to link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance. The release of the game “Cytosis” in September (2017) will make all theorists appear to be among the biologically uninformed science idiots who invented ridiculous theories in attempts to explain away Darwin’s “conditions of life.”
See: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game 
A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!
See also the comments on: Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention
For example:  2017 Jul 28 06:45 a.m. (research profile) challenges the “bad luck” theory of cancer.

Cancer etiology: assumptions lead to erroneous conclusion

The authors claim that cancer is caused and driven by mutations, and that two-thirds of the mutations required for cancer are caused by unavoidable errors arising during DNA replication. The first claim is based on the somatic mutation theory. The second claim is based on a highly positive correlation between the lifetime number of stem cell divisions in a tissue and the risk of cancer in that tissue, and on their method for estimating the proportion of mutations that result from heredity (H mutations), environmental factors (E mutations) and unavoidable errors arising during DNA replication (R mutations). These claims raise several questions:

1. Sequencing studies have found zero mutations in the genes of a variable proportion of different cancer types (see, e.g., https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/dju405 and references therein). If cancer is caused by mutations in driver genes, could the authors explain what causes these cancers with zero mutations? Could the authors use their method for estimating the proportion of cancer risk that is preventable and unpreventable in people with tumors lacking driver gene mutations?

2. Environmental factors are known to affect stem cell division rates. According to IARC, drinking very hot beverages probably causes esophageal cancer (Group 2A). If you drink something hot enough to severely damage the cells lining the esophagus, the stem cells located in deeper layers have to divide to produce new cells to replace the damaged cells. These stem cell divisions, triggered by an environmental factor, will lead to mutations arising during DNA replication. However, these mutations are avoidable if you do not drink very hot beverages. Should these mutations be counted as environmental mutations (H mutations) or as unavoidable mutations arising during DNA replication (R mutations)?

3. The authors’ work is based on the somatic mutation theory. This theory is primarily supported by the idea that cancer incidence increases exponentially with age. Since our cells are known to accumulate mutations throughout life, the accumulation of driver gene mutations in our cells would perfectly explain why the risk of cancer increases until death. However, it is now well established that cancer incidence does not increase exponentially with age for some cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, testicular cancer, cervical cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, thyroid cancer, bone cancer, etc). It is also well known that cancer incidence decreases late in life for many cancer types (lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, etc). For example, according to SEER cancer statistics review, 1975-2014, men in their 80s have approximately half the risk of developing prostate cancer than men in their 70s. The somatic mutation theory, which is the basis for this article, does not explain why the lifetime accumulation of driver gene mutations in the cells of many tissues is not translated into an increase in cancer incidence throughout life. Are the authors’ conclusions applicable to all cancers or only to those few cancers in which incidence increases exponentially with age until death?

4. The authors estimate that 23% of the mutations required for the development of pancreatic cancer are associated with environmental and hereditary factors; the rest (77%) are mutations arising during DNA replication. However, Notta et al. recently found that 65.4% of pancreatic tumors develop catastrophic mitotic events that lead to mutations associated with massive genomic rearrangements (https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19823). In other words, Notta et al. demonstrate that cell division not only leads to mutations arising during DNA replication, but also to mutations arising during mitosis. For this cancer type, the authors could introduce a fourth source of mutations, and estimate the proportion of mutations arising during mitosis (M mutations) and re-estimate those arising during DNA replication (R mutations). Alternatively, they could reanalyze their raw data without assuming that the parameters “stem cell divisions” and ”DNA replication mutations” are interchangeable. Cell division, process by which a cell copies and separates its cellular components to finally split into two cells, can lead to mutations occurring during DNA replication, but also to other cancer-promoting errors, such as chromosome aberrations arising during mitosis, errors in the distribution of cell-fate determinants between the daughter cells, and failures to restore physical interactions with other tissue components. Would the authors’ conclusions stand without assuming that the parameters “stem cell divisions” and ”DNA replication mutations” are interchangeable?

5. The authors report a striking correlation between the number of stem cell divisions in a tissue and the risk of cancer in that tissue. They do not report any correlation between the number of mutations in a tissue and the risk of cancer in that tissue; in fact, these parameters are not correlated (see. e.g., https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19768). In addition, the authors discuss that most of the mutations required for cancer are a consequence, not a cause, of the division of stem cells. So, why do the authors use their correlation to say that cancer is caused by the accumulation of mutations in driver genes instead of saying that cancer is caused by the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells?

For references and additional information see: Comment on ‘Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention’ DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28889.21602 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318744904; also https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/201707.0074/v1/download

See also: Miguel Lopez-Lazaro
My comment: Like him, others from a new generation of researchers, will no longer tolerate the pseudoscienitfic nonsense touted by evolutionary theorists and “Big Bang” cosmologists who know nothing about natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality, which links the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency.

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (7)

See first: Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (6)
Stems Cells in the Hypothalamus Slow Aging in Mice
My comment to The Scientist

Cai says microRNAs could be a potential mechanism by which hypothalamic neural stem cells have such wide-ranging effects on aging, yet he believes that neurogenesis may also be involved.

See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons.  GnRH neurons appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions. These results may reflect a strategy wherein GnRH neurons can modify diverse functions in order to coordinate the internal state of the animal and its behavior with reproduction in order to optimize reproductive success.

See also: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance (Breen, Kemena, Vlasov, Notredame, & Kondrashov, 2012; Duvarci, Nader, & LeDoux, 2008; Griggs et al., 2013; Monahan & Lomvardas, 2012) in adaptive evolution will certainly be discussed in published works that will follow.

More than 63,000 indexed articles on PubMed link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to healthy longevity. Many of them also link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy from mutations to pathology such as John McCain’s glioblastoma. He will probably be treated with microRNAs, but that fact may not be reported because the effective treatment is a refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations, natural selection, and evolution.

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (3)

See first: Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (2)
Emily Balskus Pins Down the Chemistry and Metabolism of Human Microbiomes
Summary: The chemistry and metabolism of all microbiomes is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled via the physiology of reproduction.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

My comment to The Scientist:

…trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp) dehydratase, a newly discovered member of an abundant family of proteins, produced by gut bacteria, known as the glycyl radical enzymes, helps in metabolizing trans-Hyp, an amino acid that is rare in bacteria but is common in eukaryotes.

The de novo creation of energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA protects the organized genomes of all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which has been linked from mutations to all pathology via the claims Schrodinger made in “What is Life?” (1944).

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

Natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality links the sense of smell in bacteria to the biophysically constrained viral latency that links ecological variation to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to humans via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

Sunlight has since been placed into the context of quantized energy as information, which links our visual perception of mass and energy from the space-time continuum to the concept of the energy-dependent creation of quantum souls.
See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (2016) and From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
 

MicroRNAs GnRH and the failure of sex research

Summary: “The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression” accurately represents what is known about food energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from soil microbes to humans. MicroRNAs are not new players in the hypothalamic control of fertility and the effects of food odors and pheromones on microRNAs link energy-dependent changes in hormones to behavior. That fact was detailed two decades ago in our Hormones and Behavior review.

Now see: [MicroRNAs: new players in the hypothalamic control of fertility]

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Discovered more than 15 years ago, their functions start to be unraveled. Increasing evidence points to an important functional role of microRNAs in brain development. In particular, miRNAs have recently been established to play a vital role in the mechanisms underlying the infantile rise in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) production by neurons in the hypothalamus, a phenomenon necessary for the onset of puberty in mammals.

The anti-entropic virucidal energy of ultraviolet light links the de novo creation of of microRNAs from flanking sequences that biophysically constrain all biodiversity by protecting the organized genomes of all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.

See: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

After scanning the article that accurately represents what is known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from soil microbes to humans, see this pseudoscientific nonsense for comparison:

Prenatal Influences on Human Sexual Orientation: Expectations versus Data. Breedlove SM. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0904-2.

Human Sexual Orientation: The Importance of Evidentiary Convergence. Balthazart J, Court L. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 12. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0997-2.

A Bird’s Eye View. Adkins-Regan E. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0998-1

Proceed with Caution: Interpreting Evidence for Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation. LeVay S. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 8. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0996-3

On Possible Hormonal Mechanisms Affecting Sexual Orientation. McFadden D. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 5. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0995-4

Reconsidering Prenatal Hormonal Influences on Human Sexual Orientation: Lessons from Animal Research. Baum MJ, Bakker J. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0994-5

Each published work represents the failure of the sex researchers to link energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all biodiversity via the section on molecular epigenetics from our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

In our section on molecular epigenetics, we linked the quantized energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs from fertilization to adult sexual behavior via this claim.

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating [quantized energy-dependent] alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

The alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA are quantized energy-dependent and they link microRNA flanking sequences to all biodiversity via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The hydrogen-atom transfer was place into the context of the biophysically constrained physiology of reproduction and the role of microRNAs in this published work:

The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences

Their relatively slow evolution [3] also means that they can easily be identified in de novo assemblies of genomes.

Genomes do not automagically assemble themselves. Placing the energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs into the context of the speed of evolution is a horrid error in logic that extends across all disciplines, which is the only way it can continue to be placed into the pseudoscientific claims of sexuality researchers.

See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. GnRH neurons appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions. These results may reflect a strategy wherein GnRH neurons can modify diverse functions in order to coordinate the internal state of the animal and its behavior with reproduction in order to optimize reproductive success.

See for comparison:  Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.

If you take any time at all to review the published works of sex researchers, you will learn why Feynman referred to all social scientists as pseudoscientists.

See also:

Richard Feynman was a Nobel prize winning Theoretical Physicist who popularized physics with his entertaining lecture style. This snippet is taken from one of his lectures in the series “The character of Physical Law” where he complains about all the different units that are used to measure the single concept of Energy.

The human sexualilty researchers whose works were recently published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior represent the worst of pseudoscience. They skip past the facts about food energy and pheromones and link behavior to anything except the role that microRNAs (pre-mRNAs) play in energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which links quantized energy from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the sense of smell in bacteria.
Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

…the signaling and inactive states differ only very slightly at the nitrate-binding site – by 0.5-1 angstroms, which is approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself (1 angstrom is 10-10 meters). However, when this ion binds to the sensor, it causes huge changes in the protein: The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.

See also this: Animation of a particle where the Helicity matches the Chirality.
This appears to be a match made in Heaven so far as young earth creationists are concerned. It links the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic energy to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in the context of what is known about autophagy (Yoshinhori Ohsumi) and chromosomal inheritance (Thomas Hunt Morgan).
But now, all the works of Nobel Laureates can be placed into the context of works by people like Lukin MD
See for example: Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons and Lukin MD microRNA no entries found, for comparison
People like Lukin are not going to link microRNA-mediated cause and effect from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all biodiversity on Earth via food energy and the pheromone-controlled the physiology of reproduction and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. They are like the biologically uninformed sex researchers who have failed to make sense of anything known to serious scientists.
If symmetry protects collisions between strongly interacting photons, the virus-driven theft of quantized energy clearly can be linked to the assymetry manifested it in conditions where the degradation of messenger RNA can clearly be linked to all pathology via the sense of smell.
See Hormonal correlates of women’s mid-cycle preference for the scent of symmetry

When women are fertile in their cycles, in comparison with when they are in the luteal phase, they are more attracted to masculine facial features (Johnston, Hagel, Franklin, Fink, & Grammer, 2001; Penton-Voak & Perret, 2001; Penton-Voak et al., 1999), darker facial skin color (Frost, 1994), lower voice pitch (Feinberg et al., 2006; Puts, 2005), masculine body odor (Grammer, 1993), the scent of men who are socially dominant (Havlicek, Roberts, & Flegr, 2005), the scent of men displaying developmental stability/bilateral symmetry (Gangestad & Thornhill, 1998a; Rikowski & Grammer, 1999; Thornhill & Gangestad,1999; Thornhill et al. 2003), masculine (or dominant) behavioral displays (Gangestad, Garver-Apgar, Simpson, & Cousins, 2007; Gangestad, Simpson, Cousins, Garver-Apgar, & Christensen, 2004; Gangestad, Thornhill, & Garver-Apgar, 2008), masculine or muscular bodies (Gangestad et al., 2007; Little, Jones, & Burriss, 2007) and creative men (Haselton & Miller, 2006; see Thornhill & Gangestad, in press, for a critical review of these and other cycle effects). Substantial evidence indicates that these shifts are specific to women’s preferences for men evaluated as sex partners and not to their preferences for men as long-term, investing mates (e.g., Gangestad et al.,2004, 2007; Haselton & Miller, 2006; Penton-Voak et al., 1999; Puts, 2005).

All these preferences can be framed in the context of what is known about the sense of smell and the substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapeptide. One substitution stabilizes the organized genomes of all vertebrates by preventing nearly all the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which has been linked to all pathology in all living genera.
See: Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor

It is possible that GnRH has an early origin in life history as a regulator of reproduction, since yeast α mating factor has 80% amino acid homology with mammalian GnRH and stimulates gonadotropin release from the mammalian pituitary (Loumaye et al., 1982; King and Millar, 1995). There is a question whether the structure of the GnRHs and their receptors in invertebrates conserved their structure during evolution in a sufficient degree to support the homology with the structure of GnRHs and their receptors in vertebrates.

There is no longer any question about the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera. The mechanisms are light energy-dependent in the context of food energy and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
When will all researchers learn to search PubMed for more information about the role of microRNAs before continuing to tout their pseudoscientific nonsense? What do serious scientists say, for comparison?
See: MicroRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 61842
For example: Computational identification of mutually homologous Zika virus miRNAs that target microcephaly genes.

Conclusions We suggest that following infection of fetal neurons ZIKV may modulate the action of various miRNAs, and miR-1304 in particular, resulting in microcephaly.

In reality, they suggest that all theorists are examples of human idiocy, which is the source of all virus-driven pathology.
 
 

Amino acid modification FA_Epigenetics_Table1

Food energy-dependent cell type differentiation (2)

Summary: The concept of “faster-evolving DNA” regions in the context of nucleotide variation in both the 16S and 12S sequences is not consistent with any accurate representation of how the functional structure of supercoiled DNA must be linked from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera. Conserved molecular mechanisms link the sense of smell in bacteria from the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes to the physiology of reproduction via the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and Feynman’s claim about the human idiocy of theoretical physicists who use different terms for their measurements of food energy.
See first: Food energy-dependent cell type differentiation
See also: Bacterial Communication And Relevance Of Quantum Theory
Thanks to antagonist Jay R. Feierman for calling this to my attention, See: Fwd: Bacterial Communication And Relevance Of Quantum Theory

The recent findings confirm that bacteria communicate each other through chemical and electrical signals. Bacteria use chemical signaling molecules which are called as quorum sensing molecules (QSMs) or autoinducers. Moreover, the ion channels in bacteria conduct a long-range electrical signaling within biofilm communities through propagated waves of potassium ions and biofilms attracts other bacterial species too. Both communication process are used by bacteria to make their own survival strategies. In this article, we model this bacterial communication mechanism by complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and discuss the formation of patterns depending on kinematic viscosity associated with internal noise. Again, the potassium wave propagation is described by the non-linear Schrodinger equation in a dissipative environment. By adding perturbation to non-linear Schrodinger equation one arrives at Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this paper we emphasize that at the cellular level (bacteria) we use Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation as a perturbed Non-linear Schrodinger equation to understand the bacterial communication as well as pattern formation in biofilms for certain range of kinematic viscosity which can be tested in laboratory experiment. Here, the perturbation is due to the existence of nonthermal fluctuations associated to the finite size of the bacteria. It sheds new light on the relevance of quantum formalism in understanding the cell to cell communication.

For everyone who does not follow my posts on groups and in forums where they are not commonly edited or fail to appear because the moderators and administrators are biologically uninformed theorists, I reiterate:
Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and nutrient energy-dependent quorum sensing have been linked from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria that naturally produce a uranium isotope to all morphological and behavioral biodiversity via an atoms to ecosystems model that refutes every aspect of neo-Darwinian theory and all theories linked to the claims of “Big Bang” cosmologists.
Clearly, Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005) in all living genera can be compared in the context of two claims, which were made by the moderator of the ISHE’s human ethology group, soon after I published Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (6/14/13)
7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
7/26/13
Jay R. Feierman: I am absolutely certain that if you showed this statement to any professor of biology or genetics in any accredited university anywhere in the world that 100% of them would say that “Random mutations are the substrate upon which directional natural selection acts” is a correct and true statement.
See for comparison: Quantum Souls

The sun’s energy flows to Earth as information that is absorbed by energy-dependent organisms. Along with nutrient-dependency and pheromones, it effects all living genera and ensures reproduction. God’s “conditions of life,” described in part by Darwin, come before natural selection.

For additional evidence that links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to all biodiversity and the concept of quantum souls, I reiterate:
Figure 4: Conceptual model of uranium roll-front deposit formation. — from Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits (open access)

Precursors and conditions favouring the formation of uraninite, biogenic uraninite and non-crystalline U(IV) are illustrated.

The nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction of bacteria that live underground was linked from thermodynamic cycles of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to the production of uranium isotopes. The obvious link from the quantized energy of sunlight to the de novo creation of all biodiversity also was reported in the context of 16S rRNA microbial community analysis in fish. Most authors report this in the context of a “DNA-based” analysis. That way, there is no need to differentiate between abiogeneis and biophysically constrained biogenesis. Start with genes and you do not need to explain how DNA was created.

See for comparison: Evaluation of the 16S and 12S rRNA genes as universal markers for the identification of commercial fish species in South Africa

The nucleotide variation in both the 16S and 12S sequences was suitable for identifying the large majority of the examined fish specimens to at least the level of genus, but was found to be less useful for the explicit differentiation of certain congeneric fish species. It is recommended that one or more faster-evolving DNA regions be analysed to confirm the identities of closely-related fish species in South Africa.

The concept of “faster-evolving DNA” regions in the context of nucleotide variation in both the 16S and 12S sequences is not consistent with any accurate representation of how the functional structure of supercoiled DNA must be linked from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera. Conserved molecular mechanisms link the sense of smell in bacteria from the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes to the physiology of reproduction via the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and Feynman’s claim about the human idiocy of theoretical physicists who use different terms for their measurements of food energy.
The amount of food energy, measured in calories, is linked to whether or not the organism starves to death before it reproduces. That’s how ecological variation in the supply of nutrients may lead to extinction of any species that fails to evolve into another species. So far, no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect suggests that any species has ever evolved into another species.
Claims about the need for energy-dependent changes in supercoiled DNA to protect all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which is linked to mutations and all pathology may have have peaked with this publication:
Viral MicroRNAs, Host MicroRNAs Regulating Viruses, and Bacterial MicroRNA-Like RNAs (5/25/17)

Over the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that miRNAs have many important roles in the development of disease and cancer. Recently, however, their role in viral and bacterial gene regulation as well as host gene regulation during disease progression has become a field of interest.

More than 61,000 works published peer-reviewed works show why differences in the types of microRNAs are the most important consideration to energy-dependent healthy longevity or to virus-driven pathology.
MicroRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 61426
See for comparison: It’s Time to Start Calling Evangelicals What They Are: The American Taliban

Atheistic hate-mongers like Magnus S. Magnusson continue to disseminate this nonsense and encourage attacks on any views that link Creationism to Americanism. The hate-mongers don’t know who created energy or how energy-dependent ecological adaptation is linked from changes in base pairs to all biodiversity, but they will claim that American evangelicals are like the Taliban.

See for comparison:  The in vivo structure of biological membranes and evidence for lipid domains

The structure and organization of the cell membrane are central to many biological functions, and although they have been extensively studied, there is still much that we don’t understand. A wealth of detailed information has been obtained from studies of model lipid membranes. However, these systems are often highly simplified in composition and always lack the active processes found in cells. The major obstacle to studying membranes in vivo in living cells has been that high-resolution physical methods used to investigate membrane structure are not compatible with living organisms. To overcome this obstacle, we employed a new in vivo approach that allows membrane structure to be observed directly in the gram-positive bacterium B. subtilis. This approach relies on tuning the isotopic content of hydrogen within the membrane, and other parts of the bacterium, to generate neutron scattering spectra exclusively from the membrane. Using this approach, we confirmed that the structure of the B. subtilis membrane is lamellar and has an average hydrophobic thickness of 23.9 ± 0.9 Ångstroms (Å). We were also able to observe nanoscopic lateral membrane structures, consistent with the notion of lipid rafts. This experimental approach will allow for a wide range of future structural studies of the cell membrane (and possibly other classes of biomolecules) without the need for extrinsic probes or labels. In this way, it fundamentally changes the scope of nanoscale structural questions that can be addressed in vivo.

Reported as: This Is The First Ever Nanoscale Image of a Living Cell Membrane 

They link the energy-dependent de novo creation of the cell wall in Bacillus subtilus, a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans, to all biodiversity on Earth via differences in hydrogen ions, hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution, and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

Hydrogen ions are made by the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen. That fact supports the the claims of those who have linked energy-dependent changes from atoms to ecosystems in all living genera via what occurs at the level of changes in angstroms. The changes in angstroms are linked to the innate ability of all cell types to signal other cell types via changes in the membrane that biophysically constrains the contents of the cell.
Although it is important that these researchers showed how the role of quantized energy from the sun is linked to biophysically constrained hydrophobicity in supercoiled DNA, anyone who has ever performed a “catalase” test to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Staphlococcus and Streptococcus before testing for beta-lactamase and resistance to oxacillin/methicillin has observed the release of hydrogen caused by the breakdown of the cell membrane.

Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals). It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.[3]”

Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics’ structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a β-lactam. Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecule’s antibacterial properties.”

Congratulate the researchers who have just refuted every aspect of neo-Darwinian theory as was predicted by any intelligent microbiologist who has ever needed to identify and perform susceptibility testing on a pathogen to help a physician keep the pathogen from killing the patient.

And, remember the Hippocratic Oath. First, do no harm. If you are a physician who thinks that people evolved from bacteria, learn something about cell type differentiation via a visit to the microbiology lab at a local hospital. Most medical laboratory scientists will be happy to help you stop killing people with your ignorance.

Serious scientists have forced theorists to change their claims about the gene editing technology called CRISPR Cas9 to reflect the fact that the reason the technology failed miserably. The technology was based on naturally occurring endogenous RNA interference. It is now being reported as CRISPRi in the context of identifying new genes but outside the context of their energy-dependent de novo creation.

See: High-throughput CRISPRi phenotyping identifies new essential genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Genome‐wide screens have discovered a large set of essential genes in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the functions of many essential genes are still unknown, hampering vaccine development and drug discovery. Based on results from transposon sequencing (Tn‐seq), we refined the list of essential genes in S. pneumoniae serotype 2 strain D39. Next, we created a knockdown library targeting 348 potentially essential genes by CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and show a growth phenotype for 254 of them (73%). Using high‐content microscopy screening, we searched for essential genes of unknown function with clear phenotypes in cell morphology upon CRISPRi‐based depletion. We show that SPD_1416 and SPD_1417 (renamed to MurT and GatD, respectively) are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis, and that SPD_1198 and SPD_1197 (renamed to TarP and TarQ, respectively) are responsible for the polymerization of teichoic acid (TA) precursors. This knowledge enabled us to reconstruct the unique pneumococcal TA biosynthetic pathway. CRISPRi was also employed to unravel the role of the essential Clp‐proteolytic system in regulation of competence development, and we show that ClpX is the essential ATPase responsible for ClpP‐dependent repression of competence. The CRISPRi library provides a valuable tool for characterization of pneumococcal genes and pathways and revealed several promising antibiotic targets.

The de novo creation of essential genes has been placed into the context of a problem with antibiotic sensitivity testing.

 
The problem was introduced into susceptibility testing by biologically uninformed theorists who still may not know the difference between energy-dependent ecological adaptation and mutation-driven evolution.

Cell-type-specific genome editing with a microRNA-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 switch

The transient and conditional expression of our system using synthetic RNA could provide genome editing as a potentially ‘one-shot therapy’ to treat numerous genetic diseases. In conclusion, our miR-Cas9 switch combined with a RNA-delivery approach can selectively engineer genomes of target cells by detecting an endogenous miRNA signature, with potential benefits for synthetic biology, genome editing field and future therapeutic applications.

The conditional expression of genes is linked from food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to constraint breaking mutations and all pathology.

People like Jay R. Feierman and Magnus S. Magnusson tout the pseudoscienitific nonsense of theories in books such as this one. The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion
Their atheistic agenda is the antithesis of any factual representation of anything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect.
See for comparison:  Mechanism of transmembrane signaling by sensor histidine kinases reported as:Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

…the signaling and inactive states differ only very slightly at the nitrate-binding site – by 0.5-1 angstroms, which is approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself (1 angstrom is 10-10 meters). However, when this ion binds to the sensor, it causes huge changes in the protein: The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.

See also: Eros is a novel transmembrane protein that controls the phagocyte respiratory burst and is essential for innate immunity
For a non-technical representation of everything currently known to serious scientists about the energy-dependent biophysically constrained physiology of pheromone-controlled biodiversity in all living genera see: The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002)
Could any serious scientist fail to link the novel transmembrane protein “Eros” from what organism eat to innate immunity via the non-technical representations in The Scent of Eros? If you know someone who you think is a serious scientist ask them about the representations made in The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion. If you learn that they think Faith and Religion “evolved,” I will add them to my growing list of pseudoscientists who continue to tout ridiculous theories.
 

fruit-dove

Food energy-dependent epigenetic adaptation (3)

Food energy-dependent epigenetic adaptation (2)

On 5/24/17 I attempted to post this to the ISHE’s human ethology group in response to the post on How concepts of God have developed: God’s shrinking role. God’s survival. Conclusions.

For comparison, see the expanding role of anti-entropic virucidal energy that theorists claim automagically emerged to sustain all evolved biodiversity.

I included a link to:


I also included a link to:

The moderator of the group responded quickly: Jay R. Feierman wrote:

What you are posting has nothing to do with the thread article.

See also: 7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman:

Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution. 

My summary of past interactions with Jay R. Feierman:

He refuses to accept the fact that conditions of life are energy-dependent. He refuses to accept the fact that other biologically uninformed science idiots and many anonymous fools have consistently removed Darwin’s ‘conditions of life’ and replaced them with ridiculous theories about mutations and evolution.

At a conference we both attended in 1995, Jay R. Feierman was the first to challenge the entirety of the model I presented with the question “What about birds?”

He has continued to prevent dissemination of accurate representations of energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect since then. He exemplifies the impact that one biologically uninformed science idiot can have across an entire generation of unsuspecting anonymous fools who are likely to believe that the creation of energy has nothing to do with the claims in: How concepts of God have developed: God’s shrinking role. God’s survival. Conclusions.

See also: The general form of Hamilton’s rule makes no predictions and cannot be tested empirically

Hamilton’s rule asserts that a trait is favored by natural selection if the benefit to others, B, multiplied by relatedness, R, exceeds the cost to self, C. Specifically, Hamilton’s rule states that the change in average trait value in a population is proportional to BR−C. This rule is commonly believed to be a natural law making important predictions in biology, and its influence has spread from evolutionary biology to other fields including the social sciences. Whereas many feel that Hamilton’s rule provides valuable intuition, there is disagreement even among experts as to how the quantities B, R, and C should be defined for a given system. Here, we investigate a widely endorsed formulation of Hamilton’s rule, which is said to be as general as natural selection itself. We show that, in this formulation, Hamilton’s rule does not make predictions and cannot be tested empirically. It turns out that the parameters B and C depend on the change in average trait value and therefore cannot predict that change. In this formulation, which has been called “exact and general” by its proponents, Hamilton’s rule can “predict” only the data that have already been given.

Simply put, the authors attest to the fact that every aspect that has ever been included in mathematical models of natural selection cannot link natural selection to anything that could not be predicted by what is known about how food energy must be linked from ecological variation to ecological adaptation by the sense of smell in all living genera. The sense of smell predictably links what is known about natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to biophysically constrained viral latency via publication in 2005 of Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction.

There has never been any experimental evidence of biologically based cause and effect that link anything but olfaction, food odor, and pheromones directly to the survival of all species. Yet Feierman’s claim continues to be echoed in the claims of all others who are biologically uninformed:

Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. — Jay R. Feierman

See for comparison: Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

…the signaling and inactive states differ only very slightly at the nitrate-binding site – by 0.5-1 angstroms, which is approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself (1 angstrom is 10-10 meters). However, when this ion binds to the sensor, it causes huge changes in the protein: The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.