Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Methylation and the Innate Immune System

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Methylation and the Innate Immune System

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I sent these two questions in advance:

1) Does what organisms eat link food energy to RNA-directed DNA methylation and all healthy longevity via fixation of amino acid substitutions and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans?

2) Does the virus-driven theft of quantized energy link the loss of information from impaired methylation to all pathology?

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See why I asked: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

The potential for sperm miRNA affecting zygote development has recently been reported in the literature [18] and has interesting implications for the use of sperm miRNA profiles as indicators of potential male fertility.

See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception



A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (5)

Summary: Emmy Noethe’s theorems were developed in the early 1900’s. Richard Feynman inadvertently or purposefully alluded to them as examples of human idiocy.
Discover Magazine resurrected the examples of human idiocy in a 2017 article. For comparison, Choi et al., (2017) support the claims that intercellular and interkingdom communication is energy-dependent and controlled by the metabolism of food energy to pheromones.
It is obvious that pheromones biophysically constrain the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. That fact links everything currently known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to human love in the context of established links from quantum physics to quantum souls. It may surprise some people to know that the virus-driven evolution of love is the antithetical to the food energy-dependent physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera. Indeed, some people may realize that the virus-driven evolution of anything is based upon ridiculous theories that were invented by Emmy Noethe.
See: Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (4)
Natural selection links odors and the food energy from what organisms eat to the de novo creation of microRNAs. The creation of microRNAs is linked to biophysically constrained energy-dependent codon optimality.
Odor and food energy-dependent changes in microRNAs link hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution from the creation of amino acids to the ability to sense energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum. The sense of smell in bacteria has been linked to our food energy-dependent visual perception of the space-time continuum.
Publication of Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception precedes the September 2017 release of the cell biology game Cytosis. The cell biology game links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Taken together, the facts about olfaction link the sense of smell in bacteria from quorum sensing to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum. It is no trouble for a serious scientist to consistently link quantum physics from food energy to the creation of quantum souls via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Richard Feynman inadvertently did that when he claimed that the different measures for units of energy used by other theoretical physicists were examples of human idiocy.

See for comparison: The Universe According to Emmy Noethe (Discover Magazine, 2017)

…energy may not be conserved “locally” — that is, in an arbitrarily small patch of space — but everything works out when the space is sufficiently large. That was one of two theorems she proved that year in Göttingen, Germany. The other theorem, which would ultimately have a far greater impact, uncovered an intimate link between conservation laws (such as the conservation of energy) and the symmetries of nature, a connection that physicists have exploited ever since. Today, our current grasp of the physical world, from subatomic particles to black holes, draws heavily upon this theorem, now known simply as Noether’s theorem.

Emmy Noethe’s so-called theorems, which she developed in the early 1900’s, attempted to explain how the concept of entropy might not appear to defy everything known to serious scientists about the biophysically constrained energy-dependent physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which links feedback loops from odors and pheromones to the creation of all energy-dependent biodiversity on Earth.
Simply put, more than 100 years ago Emmy Noethe’s theorems suggested that all representations of energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect are wrong. For a current representation of what is known, see: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction.
The physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction links what organisms eat to all energy-dependent biodiversity via the de novo creation of genes and gene activation that is biophysically constrained by the metabolism of food to pheromones which control the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See also: AMP-enabled FLT3-ITD detection

Independent and bidirectional probes are specifically optimized to detect internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of all sizes. The reads originating from these probes are bioinformatically assembled by Archer Analysis using a de novo assembler to form longer consensus sequences that span the ITD. These longer sequences are then aligned to the reference genome to identify the presence of even very large ITDs (> 250bp).a
a Only available on Illumina® instruments

Use of a so-called “de novo assembler” eliminates any consideration of energy as information that must be used in the context of bioinformatics and the identify of reference genomes that are used to identify pathological gene variants that arise in the context of energy-dependent de novo gene creation.  The link from Emmy Noethe’s theorems to the pseudoscientific nonsense about the  “de novo assembler” may not be clear without examination of facts about the physiology of reproduction.
For example, see: Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology

Perhaps the elegant mathematics and the extraordinary reputation of the scientists involved blinded us to what now seems obvious: the organism should never have been relegated to the role of mere carrier of its genes.

For information on Emmy Noethe’s reputation and her elegant mathematics, see:

The Mighty Mathematician You’ve Never Heard Of (2012)

She invented a theorem that united with magisterial concision two conceptual pillars of physics: symmetry in nature and the universal laws of conservation.

Noether’s brilliance was obvious to all who worked with her, and her male mentors repeatedly took up her cause…

A Fight for the Soul of Science (2015)

Silk accused these theorists of “moving the goalposts” of science and blurring the line between physics and pseudoscience. “The imprimatur of science should be awarded only to a theory that is testable,” Ellis and Silk wrote, thereby disqualifying most of the leading theories of the past 40 years. “Only then can we defend science from attack.”

See for comparison:

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems April by James V Kohl

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

From my publications alert: What’s new for ‘microRNA’ in PubMed on July 26, 2017
Tiny RNAs and their voyage via extracellular vesicles: Secretion of bacterial small RNA and eukaryotic microRNA

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that bind to the 3′-untranslated region of target mRNAs and have transcriptional or translational inhibitory function in eukaryotes. Before microRNAs were widely known, bacterial non-coding small RNAs around 50-200 nt in length were discovered whose mechanism of action resembled that of microRNAs. Recently, RNAs that are of similar size to or smaller than microRNAs have been discovered in bacteria and indeed, this class of small RNAs have been found throughout all domains of life. Moreover, recent findings suggest that these tiny RNAs can be released via extracellular vesicles (such as exosomes in eukaryotes and outer membrane vesicles in bacteria), which in turn heralds a new field of research, interkingdom communication. This review discusses two similar classes of small RNAs in evolutionarily distinct eukaryotes and bacteria. In addition to their biogenesis and regulation, we discuss small RNA vehicles and their secretion. Impact statement The possible endogenous functions of small RNAs such as regulatory small RNAs in bacteria and microRNAs in eukaryotes have been extensively studied since they were first discovered. However, their powerful functions should not be seen as limited to their cells of origin. Recently, several papers have demonstrated that small RNAs function as signaling molecules between cells. This is possible because small RNAs can be shuttled around after being incorporated into environmentally protective extracellular vesicles. It is now clearly plausible that secreted small RNAs can regulate other types of cells through biofluids. Given their “common molecule” status, the role of small RNAs in mediating bacteria-human crosstalk is an emerging and competitive area of genetic research. This review provides insight into the function of small RNAs in intercellular and even interkingdom communication.

See also:Impact statement

The possible endogenous functions of small RNAs such as regulatory small RNAs in bacteria and microRNAs in eukaryotes have been extensively studied since they were first discovered. However, their powerful functions should not be seen as limited to their cells of origin. Recently, several papers have demonstrated that small RNAs function as signaling molecules between cells. This is possible because small RNAs can be shuttled around after being incorporated into environmentally protective extracellular vesicles. It is now clearly plausible that secreted small RNAs can regulate other types of cells through biofluids. Given their “common molecule” status, the role of small RNAs in mediating bacteria-human crosstalk is an emerging and competitive area of genetic research. This review provides insight into the function of small RNAs in intercellular and even interkingdom communication.

As indicated in my 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics, which was returned without review, endogenous functions of regulatory RNAs such as small RNAs in bacteria and microRNAs in eukaryotes have been extensively detailed in the context of biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect. These authors attest to the fact that the structure and function of bacterial small RNAs and eukaryotic microRNAs are not limited to their food energy-dependent de novo creation in their cells of origin.
The fact that small RNA and micro-RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs in the context of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution links the information in this review to claims that small RNAs in seawater solutions and microRNAs in blood link “common molecule” status to “… the function of small RNAs in intercellular and even interkingdom communication.”  The fact that intercellular and interkingdom communication is energy-dependent and controlled by the metabolism of food energy to pheromones that biophysically constrain the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, links everything currently known about cell type differentiation from quantum physics to quantum souls via the food energy-dependent physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See also: Choi JW[Author] microRNA
For example: MicroRNA profiling in the mouse hypothalamus reveals oxytocin-regulating microRNA
For comparison: @36:18 Larry Young explains the virus-driven evolution of love as if serious scientists had learned nothing about receptor-mediated behaviors.

Cytosis

From E. coli to monkeys and mankind: Theories vs models (2)

Dedicated to Dr. Tom Jordan and Priscilla Jordan on the day of their retirement from the Baptist ministry, May 28, 2017. They always encouraged me to learn more about the “Laws of Biology” and link the Laws from energy as information to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction.

See also: From E. coli to monkeys and mankind: Theories vs models

High-throughput biochemical profiling reveals sequence determinants of dCas9 off-target binding and unbinding (5/23/127)

…changes in observed association and dissociation, suggesting the possibility of kinetic and thermodynamic tuning of Cas9 behavior.

Simply put, the technology didn’t work. That’s a problem for CRISPR/Cas9 advocates (see the incessant barrage of CRISPR/Cas9 promotion on the closed FB group CRISPR Cas9).

Advocates will be forced to accept the fact that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has always been the link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via food odors and pheromones.

Suggesting the possibility of kinetic and thermodynamic tuning is akin to telling all serious scientists that, until now, the innate immune system of bacteria and the CRISPR Cas technology has not been examined inside the context of the Laws of Physics and the Basic Principles of chemistry. The Laws and the Basic Principles must link RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry from the physiology of reproduction to all food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled behavior in species from microbes to humans via amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.
 

That fact separates the serious scientists from the pseudoscientists who have refused to examine other facts about biologically-based biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry. The facts start with the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy as information and the energy as information has been linked to all cell type differentiation by these researchers.

See: Mechanism of transmembrane signaling by sensor histidine kinases (5/18/17)

Reported as: Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.

My summary of the signalling mechanism, which links subatomic particles to cell type differentiation in all living genera via the sense of smell in bacteria:

The active and inactive signaling states link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via slight variations at the nitrate-binding site. When the ion binds to the sensor, a change in 0.5-1 angstroms (approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself) causes a change in the protein that links input from the sensor to a change in the output that varies by as much as 7 angstroms.

In the context of what is known about food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled quorum sensing in bacteria, the change in 0.5-1 angstroms can be linked from the changes in 7 angstroms to base pair changes and amino acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genomes of species from E. coli to primates in the context of all energy-dependent interactive ecosystems, which appear to have existed from the dawn of Creation.

For example, the link from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all vertebrates is mentioned in the title of this published work: The zinc spark is an inorganic signature of human egg activation. 

The spark that links inorganic material to organic life was placed into the context of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. See our section on molecular distance in: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.

Molecular distance. As measured in centimorgans, human and other species’ male and female chromosomes, including the autosomes, tend to have different lengths in various segments. To some extent, this suggests a correlation with physical distance but instead the differing lengths are based upon rates of recombination; although sections of most female chromosomes are longer than their homologous counterparts in male chromosomes, in some segments of various chromosomes opposite length-difference occurs, with males having larger centimorgan values than females in those regions (Lawrence, Collins, Keats, Hulten, and Morton, 1993; Murray, Buetow, Weber, Ludwigsen, Scherpbier-Heddema, Manion, Quillen, Sheffield, Sunden, and Duyk, 1994; Straub, Speer, Luo, Rojas, Overhauser, Ott, and Gilliam, 1993). While ramifications of these centimorgan sexual dimorphisms are not yet clearly established, in recent years cis- and trans-acting factors contributing to these recombination length differences have been reported for a specific part of the murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (Shiroishi, Sagai, Hanzawa, Gotoh, and Moriwaki, 1991).

Simply put, the cited works linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via the innate immune system of bacteria, which was linked to sex differences in chromosomes. Note the difference between our accurate representation of biophysically constrained energy-dependent chromosomal inheritance and the claims in: Sex chromosome evolution: historical insights and future perspectives

Conclusion:

…a direct experimental test of the steps in sex chromosome evolution constitutes more robust evidence than a comparative study, especially considering the new manipulative possibilities opened up by the CRISPR/Cas9 system [105]. In any case, the field of sex chromosome evolution seems likely to remain active and dynamic for many years to come.

Reported as: Knowledge gap on the origin of sex

The review shows that the significance of ecology has not been sufficiently noted. Therefore, the biologists in Lund call for more research on how the living environment of a population affects the development and evolution of sex chromosomes. This could include factors such as access to food, age variations within a population or the consequences for sex chromosomes when populations that have lived separately meet and mix.

The fact that others still claim that the origin of sex has not already been linked from factors such as access to food, age variations within a population or the consequences for sex chromosomes attests to the ignorance of theorists. The fact that theorists want to attempt to evoke aspects of the CRISPR Cas9 technology in attempts to explain sexual differentiation attests to the ignorance of those who think more research is required to link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and chromosomal inheritance.

Energy-dependent changes were linked from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera in this published work: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA (10/12/15) and in this parody from 12/10/14.

See also: Origins of Life: A Problem for Physics

The hope is that a theory akin to our other theories in fundamental physics might one day emerge to explain the phenomenon of life, and in turn finally permit solving its origins.

See for comparison: The Chirality Of Life: From Phase Transitions To Astrobiology

A key missing piece is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: permeating almost every life-form on Earth is the presence of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars.

Watch as Jeremy England eliminates any discussion of light activated endogenous substrates in the context of microRNAs linked to the energy-dependent creation of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars.

A New Physics Theory of Life

You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant.

If another ridiculous theory emerged, will it explain anything outside the context of experimental evidence that links energy as information to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera? For example, what theory might emerge to explain how an infection in the throat is linked to mental disorders in adults.

See: Streptococcal throat infection linked to mental disorders

The researchers found that the risk of any mental disorder was increased for individuals with a positive streptococcal test compared to those without a streptococcal test…

Watch a biologist fail to link physics and chemistry from the strep infection to brain development via the innate immune system and molecular epigenetics as he explains CRISPR at 5 different levels of his ignorance. 5/24/17

 

The speaker is a co-author of: Genome-wide CRISPR Screen in a Mouse Model of Tumor Growth and Metastasis 3/5/15

In all of these experiments, the effect of mutations on primary tumor growth positively correlates with the development of metastases. Our study demonstrates Cas9-based screening as a robust method to systematically assay gene phenotypes in cancer evolution in vivo.

Reported as: In vivo CRISPR-Cas9 screen sheds light on cancer metastasis and tumor evolution

The results highlighted some well-known tumor suppressor genes in human cancer, including Pten, Cdkn2a, and Nf2, but included some genes not previously linked to cancer. Unexpectedly, the screen also implicated several microRNAs — small RNA segments that are functional in the cell.

Neville E Sanjana, has now linked his ignorance from 2015 to assays that link energy-dependent microRNAs to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Kaveli Kull attests to the fact about what loser must do, when facts replace their ridiculous theories about genome editing.

Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. —  Kalevi Kull

Anyone who has tried to explain what humans are made of without linking energy from the light activated endogenous substrate that links ATP to the creation of RNA via microRNAs in the context of what is now being referred to as endogenous RNA interference may not recognize how desperate evolutionary theorists have become in their attempt to make others think that all neo-Darwinian theorists are not losers.

See (link opens .pdf) Participation of glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle, in nuclear adenosine triphosphate synthesis (1963)

…thymus nuclei appear to have an endogenous substrate, and some experiments are presented which suggest that this substrate is probably not glycogen or glucose.

See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

Isolated thymus nuclei transport amino acids into an intranuclear pool by a process which seems to depend on energy from nuclear ATP synthesis (20).

Biology to a Physicist

Sunlight bursts the social bubble of physics and math

Accessing non-natural reactivity by irradiating nicotinamide-dependent enzymes with light

Under irradiation with visible light, the nicotinamide-dependent enzyme known as ketoreductase can be transformed from a carbonyl reductase into an initiator of radical species and a chiral source of hydrogen atoms.

Physicists, mathematicians, and my Facebook friend Paul Harrington, have said nothing about the obvious direct link from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy, which is the source of hydrogen atoms that links the speed of light on contact with water, to the reactivity of existing enzymes via the excited states of photons as common biological co-factors.
This direct link from the sun helped serious scientists link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera. But the facts used by serious scientists represent a dramatic departure from theories about light-driven biocatalysis.
The facts start with differences in the energy of two photons. The difference in the energy of the photons can be placed into the context of co-factor regeneration only if virus-driven energy theft is biophysically constrained by the availability of nutrients and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
See also: Chemical biology: A radical change in enzyme catalysis

The key is to excite the enzyme’s cofactor using light — an approach that might work for other enzymes.

See also:  A conserved NAD+ binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging
Paul Harrington went to great lengths to obfuscate the fact that all protein-protein folding interactions are energy-dependent, RNA-mediated, and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.See for example: Paul Harrington April 6 at 4:14pm

After reading most of the published literature on NAD metabolome, and pharmacokinetics – these NAD precursors yield equivalent NAD** (AUC*):500 mg Niacin (NA) [not Niacinamide] $1-3/month
https://www.swansonvitamins.com/rugby-niacin-500-mg-1000-ta…

200-250 mg Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)
$30-50/month
https://www.elysiumhealth.comBackgrounders:
NAD:
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/…/beyond-resveratrol-…/
NMN the direct precursor of NAD:
http://news.harvard.edu/…/harvard-scientists-pinpoint-criti…**’The human NAD metabolome: Functions, metabolism and compartmentalization’:Andrey Nikiforov, Veronika Kulikova & Mathias Ziegler
http://www.tandfonline.com/…/…/10.3109/10409238.2015.1028612**’Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans’:
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12948#Niacin Niacin (NA) [not Niacinamide] #Tryptophan
#NMN
#NR Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)
#NAD+def. of AUC: *https://www.boomer.org/c/p3/c02/c0210.htmlFig. 1
Overview of the NAD metabolome in humans. NAD can be synthesized from five precursors: tryptophan (Trp), the pyridine bases nicotinamide (Nam) and nicotinic acid (NA) or the nucleosides Nam riboside (NR) and NA riboside (NAR), which [enter cells by different transport mechanisms]:

You could look through all the information he provides and never realize that sunlight is the direct link to the ATP-dependent biosynthesis of RNA. That fact links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of ultraviolet light from constraints on the formation of galaxies to constraints on the de novo creation of genes.

Physicists and mathematicians tend to obfuscate cause and effect via their failure to start with the sun’s energy. They failed to link hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solutions like seawater and blood to all biodiversity. Simply put, physicists and mathematicians prevent scientific progress via their failure to cross disciplines.

See: The Social Bubble of Physics and watch that bubble be burst because Science needs reason to be trusted.
Most serious scientists know that mathematicians and physicists cannot be trusted because they have never made any reasonable attempt to link their findings to biologically-based cause and effect.
Their plague on humanity was placed into the context of the conclusion from Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology

Perhaps the elegant mathematics and the extraordinary reputation of the scientists involved blinded us to what now seems obvious: the organism should never have been relegated to the role of mere carrier of its genes.

See for comparison: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Amino acid modification FA_Epigenetics_Table1

Thinking about energy is not radical re-thinking

The brain: a radical rethink is needed to understand it

…Optogenetics, a technique that uses genetic modification of neurons so that their electrical activity can be controlled with light pulses – can help us to explore their specific contribution to brain function.

Optogenetics links the speed of light on contact with water to what is known about all energy-dependent cell type differentiation in all individuals of all living genera. Serious scientists, for example, have linked angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera because they know that brain function is experience-dependent and RNA-mediated.

Even in organisms that have no brain, cell type differentiation occurs in the context of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. All chemistry is energy-dependent quantum chemistry and chemistry links quantum physics from the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors to the biological basis for all biodiversity on Earth.
For example, food odors link natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to the metabolism of food to pheromones. Biophysically constrained RNA-mediated feedback loops link the metabolism of food from the physiology of reproduction to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
Simply put, quantum physics, quantum chemistry, and energy-dependent quantum biology prevent virus-driven entropy, which links everything known to serious scientists about niche construction to consciousness.
The Penrose Institute was established to link that fact to human consciousness in the context of everything known about cell type differentiation to everyone since the time that Lewis Thomas began making claims olfaction and smell.
A Fear of Pheromones (1971)
On Smell (1980)

The act of smelling is remarkably like the act of thinking itself.

See also:

I should think we might fairly gauge the future of biological science, centuries ahead by estimating the time it will take to reach a complete comprehensive understanding of odor. It may not seem a profound enough problem to dominate all the life sciences, but it contains, piece by piece, all the mysteries.  —  as cited in The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality

In 1991, Roger Penrose, summarized what was known about all the mysteries in his forward to the reprint of Schrodinger’s “What is Life?”

How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?

For comparison, see this comment by “Sonny” Williams to the International Society for Human Ethology’s yahoo group:

The empirical evidence is overwhelming that the brain is composed of highly specialized regions, whose neuronal members are unique in their cytoarchitecture (down to the molecular level).  Moreover, empirical evidence reveals that genes have directed these neural variations during corticogenesis; that is, most specialized neurons are differentiated early during development and directed to their place in the brain by intrinsic cues, and not activity-dependent cues.  This fact does not preclude later “rewiring,” or changes that are activity-dependent (plasticity), but this range of plasticity is constrained by the genetically derived regions.

Thus, the metaphor that the brain is “modular” is as accurate as any other metaphor.  HOWEVER, “modular” and functionally specialized regions has always included the fact that functional outcomes require a widely distributed network of specialized regions.  That is, modules do not exist in isolation, as islands of specialized function, but rather there existence as a specialized region is predicated upon their iterative communication with many other equally specialized regions.

I cannot recall any comment by Clarence “Sonny” Williams that might ever have made sense to a serious scientist. He is, in my opinion, a biologically uninformed science idiot. I once wondered who could have taught anyone to believe what biologically uninformed people believe in, or why they think what they were taught makes sense to serious scientists.
Then, I tried to discuss what I know about the energy-dependent links from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera with the senior author of Complex Spike Patterns in Olfactory Bulb Neuronal Networks by Alister U Nicol, Anne Segonds-Pinchon, and Magnus S. Magnussen. It was also published as a book chapter in Discovering Hidden Temporal Patterns in Behavior and Interaction: T-Pattern Detection and Analysis with THEME™
Background:

T-pattern analysis is a procedure developed for detecting non-randomly recurring hierarchical and multiordinal real-time sequential patterns (T-patterns).

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that such sequences are an important physiological property of the neural system studied, and suggest that they may form a basis for encoding sensory information.

My summary: They link everything known to serious scientists about energy as information to non-randomly recurring patterns of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry and “…characterize these patterns in light of their putative role in processing sensory information.”
They ignore the fact that sunlight is the anti-entropic virucidal source of the energy that prevents genomic entropy via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
Apparently, like other biologically uninformed theorists, they did not realize what Dobzhansky (1973) did when he linked the light of evolution to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Dobzhansky was one of the first self-declared Creationists to level the playing field with his joke about evolution as if it occurred over billions of years.

I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God’s, or Nature’s, method of Creation. Creation is not an event that happened in 4004 B.C.; it is a process that began some 10 billion years ago and is still under way.

Anyone who followed Dobzhansky’s works probably got the joke. He knew there was experimental evidence of God’s Creation. For example, he linked sensory input from what organisms eat and their physiology of reproduction to amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera. He also knew that theorists had not found experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect that supported their claims about millions to billions of years of evolution.
All serious scientists were made aware of Dobzhansky’s rabbinical form of debate in 1964. He began by referring to theorists as bird-watchers and butterfly collectors.  A rather well known form of rabbinical begins with: “Thou fool….”
Dobzhansky was far less damning when he started his address with this:

The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.

Dobzhansky probably was referring to himself in the third person when he made the claim about the unidentified Professor of Zoology. Still, to avoid ridicule by biologically uninformed theorists, he tempered the claim.

Such pronunciamentos can be dismissed as merely ridiculous. They are, however, caricatures of opinions entertained by some intelligent and reasonable people, whose views deserve an honest and careful consideration and analysis. Science must cope with new problems that arise and devise new approaches to old problems. Some lines of research become less profitable and less exciting and others more so.

Clearly, Dobzhansky knew that his claims about amino acid substitutions would be accepted by serious scientists and rejected by pseudoscientists, who have continued to reject the claims of all serious scientists. That’s what pseudoscientists have always done.
See for instance:

3/09/17 Jay Feierman: One can’t have Darwinian evolution by natural selection without either “random” mutations or directional selection. They are both necessary, proximate, contributing causes for genes and the proteins they code for changing in frequency over time in a population and by which the population becomes adaptively configured to the current environment.

3/17/17 Jay R. Feierman [NEW]: We are adaptively configured to the current environment because we are the most successful mammal on earth by any measure. There are 7 billion of us and we inhabit every continent on earth. We accomplished this by Darwinian natural selection adaptively influencing the structural design features we call genes and the proteins they make as well as the extra-genetic structural design features developed through our creativity and ingenuity where we pass the instructions on how to make them across generations by social learning. An iPhone is an example today and an obsidian arrow head was an example in the past.

My comment:  After attempts to discuss energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cause and effect with Magnus S. Magnusson, I was not surprised to find support for some of Feierman’s claims about human adaptations in:

Complex spike patterns in olfactory bulb neuronal networks

Indeed, adaptations occur. But, in the same article, they failed to support Feierman’s claims that the adaptations randomly occur.

Abstract excerpt:

BACKGROUND:

T-pattern analysis is a procedure developed for detecting non-randomly recurring hierarchical and multiordinal real-time sequential patterns (T-patterns).

Conclusion: We conclude that such sequences are an important physiological property of the neural system studied, and suggest that they may form a basis for encoding sensory information.

My conclusion: People like Jay R. Feierman should try to support their assertions about adaptations with experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect like the evidence that was cited in the article linked above.

Any claims about how a population becomes adaptively configured to the current environment are not true outside the context of what is known about energy as information and biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. If those ridiculous claims were true, the experimental evidence of top-down causation that theorists think support the claims could be used to convince serious scientists that something besides natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction could replace facts to support theories about mutation-driven evolution.

See also 3/18/17: [MODERATOR NOTE: I’m posting this submission even though it misquotes Feierman, who did not ever say or imply that “adaptations randomly occur.” jrf]
See alson 3/18/17: [MODERATOR NOTE: Adaptations and mutations are not synonyms. An adaptation is a mutation acted upon by natural selection to configure a population to the current environment. It would be an oxymoron to say that “adaptations randomly occur.” By definition, adaptations are mutations that have been acted upon by natural selection by which their frequency is increased in a population over time in a specific environment. jrf]

amino acid homeostasis

The essence of precision medicine: drug targets or healthy longevity?

The molecular epigenetics of healthy longevity
Trichome, a Functional Diversity Phenotype in Plant
Abstract:

Trichomes play a very important role in the process of evolution for plant which are epidermal appendages covering the surface of plants. In this paper, some progress concerning the genes responsible for trichome formation is presented for monocots and dicotyledons plants. Meanwhile, the special structures and physiological functions of trichome are briefly introduced, such as reflectance, energy balance, ultraviolet protection, drought resistance, gas exchange, insect resistance and disease resistance. The review provides a theoretical basis for the further study of other trichome related traits in plants.

The review links the process of evolution from the energy balance to ultraviolet protection without mention of where the energy came from or how the energy balance is biophysically constrained by the chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding in the context of fixed amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA. They should simply claim that evolution is an automagical process that they cannot explain in terms that might be used by serious scientists to link physics and chemistry to molecular epigenetics and all biologically-based cause and effect.
Article excerpts

Trichomes, as a plant protective barrier against natural hazards such as herbivores, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, pathogen attacks and excessive transpiration, play a key role in development of plants and occur widely in various plants.

Trichomes are a model system for cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, cell polarity and cell expansion…

Trichomes cannot be a model system because cell differentiation it is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

Light reflectors and energy balance

Studies have shown that trichomes can be reflectors of broadspectrum radiation, and play a physiologically significant role in modulating the plant energy balance [57,65,66]. When leaves are exposed in environments, this can regulate heat balance via transpiration cooling, which requires an adequate water supply or through reduced leaf absorption [66].

All physiologically significant roles played in the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation in all living genera must link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems. Now that those links have been established, they can be used to virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
Clearly, nothing evolves without an anti-entropic virucidal energy source, which means that no species has ever evolved into another species via natural selection for anything except energy-dependent codon optimality.
Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is the essence of precision medicine. See:
See for comparison: The histone demethylase KDM3A regulates the transcriptional program of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells

Methylation of histone lysine residues is a significant component of epigenetics and is associated with control of gene expression [1]. Specifically, methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9) has been recognized as hallmark of transcriptionally suppressed genes [2].

“The essence of precision medicine is to understand, which drug targets are effective given each person’s unique genetic and epigenetic makeup,” Filipp said.

Methylation is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. Nutrient energy-dependent viral latency links lysine residues (amino acid substitutions) to all healthy longevity in all living genera via natural selection for differences in the energy of photons, which has been linked from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Each person’s unique genetic makeup arises only in the context of epigenetic effects on supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. Different levels of energy link energy as information in photons from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

Virus-driven energy theft links mutations to all pathology.
For more pseudoscientific nonsense about cancers and metastases, see: Cancer Cells Conversations About Metastasis
My comment: Different levels of energy link energy as information in photons from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
Virus-driven energy theft links mutations to all pathology.
See also:
Mitochondria as a Favourite Organelle for Invading Viruses

ER-alpha 36, A Novel Biomarker for ER-Negative Breast Cancer
DNA Repair Mechanisms in ESCs and iPSCs
If pseudoscientists consistently fail to link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via fixation of amino acid substitutions, do not expect them do discover that the energy for DNA repair is essence of precision medicine.
See also my comments on: Ben Carson and the Power of the Hippocampus
For example:
Do you realize that Ben Carson and others like him have linked energy to the experience-dependent near-infinite capacity of the brain, and linked virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via Schrodinger’s claims in “What is Life?” (1944)
All of Carson’s claims about the hippocampus link what is known to all serious scientists about energy-dependent RNA methylation and experience-dependent cell type differentiation, which is biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See: “Experience-Dependent Accumulation of N6-Methyladenosine in the Prefrontal Cortex Is Associated with Memory Processes in Mice” June 22, 2016
The repository of non serious scientists is found among neo-Darwinian theorists. Also, Dobzhansky (1964) made claims about the difference between serious scientists and “serious intellectuals,” who he would probably also refer to as biologically uninformed.
For example, Neuroskeptic concludes that “It’s not a totally crazy approach, but it makes a lot of assumptions.”
Ben Carson did not make any assumptions about the claims that link ATP from the energy-dependent de novo creation of RNA to all biodiversity via links from RNA methylation to learning and memory in all living genera. See: Dobzhansky’s claims (1973) about RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation in all living genera. The energy clearly must be linked from what organisms eat to the physiology of reproduction. See for comparison:
Biology, molecular and organismic (1964) Excerpt: “The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology. ”
For an example of some intelligent men, see: DEPENDENCE OF RNA SYNTHESIS IN ISOLATED THYMUS NUCLEI ON GLYCOLYSIS, OXIDATIVE CARBOHYDRATE CATABOLISM AND A TYPE OF “OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION” (1964)

The essence of precision medicine: drug targets or healthy longevity?

Amino acid modification FA_Epigenetics_Table1

Physicists: Desperate Acts (revisited)

Physicists: Desperate Acts
Light-induced endogenous RNA interference in bioluminescent microbes links Schrodinger’s claims in “What is LIfe?” (1944) from a light-to-chemical pathway of information exchange in all living genera via amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.
All subsequent works on the evolutionary synthesis failed to link  the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to Darwin’s “conditions of life” from the claims of Schrodinger (1944) or the claims of any other serious scientist.

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

See also: A theoretical physicist approaches the complexity — and mystery — of quantum gravity head-on

We thought that matter was continuous, and it took quite some time to realize that matter is not continuous,” he explains. “It’s atomic, it’s made by atoms and molecules, by particles. This was only understood about the beginning of the 20th century, not before that. It’s one of those ideas that is very old. It was suggested in ancient times. But it was realized recently.”

“So matter is discrete, and light is discrete, it’s made by photons. A wave of light is actually a cloud of photons. And it’s not surprising, after all, that space itself is sort of a cloud of little teeny small things.
Serious scientists used what is known about subatomic particles to show that all the assumptions of pseudoscientists have always been wrong. The pseudoscientists now must deal with serious scientists who have linked the creation of energy as information to all biodiversity and others who linked virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
Some of the best among the serious scientists scientists who did that are young earth creationists who have always been right. They somehow knew that gravity did not create itself and most of them began to realize that hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution must be linked from energy-dependent changes in chirality to autophagy.
When pseudoscientist failed to link chirality from autophagy to endogenous RNA interference and supercoiled DNA, which prevents virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy in all organized genomes of all living genera, the serious scientists started to ridicule the theorists in parodies.
For a historical perspective on the ridicule, see Was ribosome the first self-replicator?

Two years ago, I asked Matti Pitkanen if differences between biophotons were recognized by the photons at the quantum level of their interactions. His response was a classic example of evading the question with claims that theoretical physicists tout in their pseudoscientific nonsense.

To how high level can one continue this parallelism. For instance, does it make sense to talk about dark variants of cell and cell membrane? Can one tell whether it was pro-cell or bio-molecules that emerged first? It seems that all these structures could have emerged simultaneously. What emerged was dark matter and its emergence involved the emergence of all the others. Hens and eggs emerged simultaneously.

See for comparison: “How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?” — Roger Penrose (8 August 1991)

See also: Why metabolism and what happens in bio-catalysis? Matti Pitkanen (2 February 2017)

  1. The simplest and at the same time most difficult question that innocent student can make about biology class is simple: “Why we must eat?”
  2. …the energies of the hydrogen atom depend on hbareff=n× h in as hbareffm, m=-2<0. Hydrogen atoms in dimension D have Coulomb potential behaving as 1/rD-2 from Gauss law and the Schrödinger equation predicts for D≠ 4 that the energies satisfy En∝ (heff/h)m, m=2+4/(D-4). For D=4 the formula breaks since in this case the dependence on hbar is not given by power law. m is negative only for D=3 and one has m=-2. There D=3 would be unique dimension in allowing the hydrino-like states making possible bio-catalysis and life in the proposed scenario.
  3. The condition that the dark binding energy is above the thermal energy gives a condition on the value of heff/h=n as n≤ 32. The size scale of the dark largest allowed dark atom would be about 100 nm, 10 times the thickness of the cell membrane.

Pitkanen is unable to grasp the fact that the speed of light on contact with water is the source of all binding energy, which links hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution from endogenous RNA interference to healthy longevity in all living genera via chromosomal inheritance. His attempts to place dark binding energy above the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight is still one of the most foolish attempts I have seen anyone make to deny that the energy in a hydrogen atom has been there from the time God created the heavens and the earth — as detailed in Biblical Genesis.
Matti Pitkänen What new physics do you want to introduce to support your claims about dark energy and dark matter for comparison to the claims of Schrodinger about the anti-entropic energy of sunlight?

I call it adelic physics or number theoretic physics.

Does everyone who knows you except Ulla Mattfolk laugh at your pseudoscientific nonsense?

Matti Pitkänen …one must assume that space-time is what topologist calle n-fold covering space. n sheets of covering effectively multiply Planck constant by n to give h_eff. The quantum of action is n-fold since there are n sheets.

I told him that all the assumptions made by others have been wrong.

Matti Pitkänen  It took more than 10 years to deduce this from adelic physics which is fusion of real physics for matter and various p-adic physics for cognition, p = prime.

Matti Pitkänen I think very few laugh to my theory now. If they do so I can safely conclude that they are idiots.

Matti Pitkänen …your understanding of physics could be better. One must distinguish between continuity at space-time level and continuity of matter.

Matti Pitkänen  The cognitive representations defined by the intersections of real and p-adic space-time surfaces as intersection of reality and imagination/cognition are discrete: points have coordinates in extension of rationals. In this sense discreteness makes sense but is has nothing to do with the quantum mechanical discretization of quantum numbers.

Matti Pitkänen …the odor of nutrients is determined by pheromones. Is this true. This would be nice since pheromones could provide information about distribution of h_eff=n*h and thus about the number theoretic evolutionary level of food or potential mating partner. Good odors would correspond to large average n. Bad odors to low value of n and low negentropy.

Matti Pitkänen  TGD predicts both dark matter and energy naturally and this explanation leads to vision about quantum biology and cognition unlike other proposals.

The pre-publication reviews of this book came from people who I think George FR Ellis and others probably believe are serious scientists. I do not believe those people are anything more than theorists. When they include claims about viruses, serious scientists may discuss the reality of pattern recognition with them. But not until then. Energy vs virus-driven energy theft must be considered in the context of adaptive changes in the brain, June 12, 2016

See for comparison: Thomas Hunt Morgan

Morgan contributed to the neo-Darwinian synthesis, despite his criticism of Darwin at the beginning of his career. Much work on the Evolutionary Synthesis remained to be done.

See also: Gamma oscillations organize top-down signalling to hypothalamus and enable food seeking
Reported as: Gamma oscillations coordinate food seeking

 “Preferential and selective control of feeding-related cells by rhythmic inputs to hypothalamus demonstrates a beautiful interaction of structure and function in the brain” says Alexey Ponomarenko. “Here we see how fast synchronization, combined with a precise information transfer between brain regions and cells types, drives behaviors crucial for survival.”

Coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation
Reported as: Study finds mutual reinforcement of phenotypic diversity and cooperation

A new model exploring how evolutionary dynamics work in natural selection has found that phenotypic diversity, or an organism’s observable traits, co-evolves with contingent cooperation when organisms with like traits work together to protect themselves from outsiders, according to a Dartmouth-led study published in PLOS Computational Biology. The study also finds that diversity helps prevent the collapse of cooperation.

Achieving Reversible H2/H+ Interconversion at Room Temperature with Enzyme-Inspired Molecular Complexes: A Mechanistic Study
Reported as: Catalyst mediates energy-efficient proton transport for reversibility

Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory built a catalyst that mimics nature’s hydrogen-splitting enzymes—working reversibly at room temperature and pressure without added energy. This was achieved by stabilizing the catalyst’s structure by attaching an amino acid…

Increasing Type 1 Poliovirus Capsid Stability by Thermal Selection

Our data show that some capsid mutations stabilize the ECs and could be applied as candidates to synthesize stable VLPs as future genome-free poliovirus vaccines.

‘Virus-Like Particle’ Method to Make new Polio Vaccines Proven Effective

The investigators have demonstrated that stabilized VLPs can be utilized effectively under controlled conditions. Additional research with model organisms like mice and rats will be necessary and is planned as an important part of crucial procedure of ensuring the safety and efficacy of these new VLPs for use in people.

All experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect has shown that controlled conditions are not exemplified in the context of how ecological variation must be linked from natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to the physiology of reproduction. Energy-dependent changes must be linked from chirality to autophagy by natural information processing. The control of information processing links energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference from amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA to all healthy longevity in all living genera. Negative supercoiling links virus-driven energy theft from mutations to all pathology.

If you would like to learn more about how virus-driven energy theft is linked to messenger RNA degradation and all pathology in species from microbes to humans, see: Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system
The resurrection clearly links energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the functional structure that enables the search for nutrients, which are metabolized to pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

fruit-dove

Theories vs facts about polycombic adaptation

See: Demoncrats fight polycombic ecological adaptation

Exosomes as miRNA Carriers: Formation–Function–Future

Important aspects will be highlighted as a take-home message (THM) at the end of each paragraph.

THM: Extracellular vesicles transport miRNA in a paracrine and endocrine manner. Questions regarding the cellular options of producing either microvesicles or exosomes and their difference in miRNA composition and number are still unknown.

In my 2014 invited review, the four F’s, Formation–Function–Future and Copulation were included in details about how the nutrient energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs must be linked to nutritional epigenetics. My invited review was returned without review by the guest editors of a special issue of “Nutrients.”
I realized the guest editors had “baited me” into providing them with all the available current information and published my submission to Figshare. That’s how I show the level of deception that biologically uninformed theorists still use to obfuscate what is known to serious scientists about biologically-based cause and effect.

See for example: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (April 10, 2014)

Abstract: “This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.”

Lynnette Ferguson, was one of two guest editors that invited my review.
 
She is the co-author of The Interaction between Epigenetics, Nutrition and the Development of Cancer This article belongs to the Special Issue NutritionalEpigenetics
 

Conclusion:

…it is imperative to understand the implications of diet on epigenetic modifications, and the effect of those modifications on the development of cancer today and in future generations. Such an understanding and an appropriate resultant response would help decrease the level of risk in future generations.

There would be no future generations if diet could not be epigenetically linked from metabolism to the pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to human via energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance. The microRNA/messenger RNA balance biophysically contrains RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry.

Protein folding chemistry links energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the innate immune system and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA. Supercoiled DNA exemplifies natural section for energy-dependent codon optimality, but theorists will not accept that fact. They would rather believe that the mutations in DNA are naturally selected and that mutation-driven evolution automagically occurs outside the context of energy or the virus-driven energy theft that causes all mutations and all pathology.

See also: The developmental basis for the recurrent evolution of deuterostomy and protostomy

This scenario challenges the assumed value of extant blastoporal behaviours for explaining the evolutionary origin and diversification of Bilateria that has been presumed for over 100 years4,5,6,7,9,10,11. Freeing the constraint that the mouth and anus have a necessary association with the embryonic blastopore will help in understanding the developmental events underlying the evolution of an alimentary canal5,20,21,50, and ultimately the appearance and diversification of bilaterian body plans.

All scenarios that failed to link energy-dependent behavior to the physiology of reproduction and also failed to link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology have always been based on questionable assumptions. The assumptions fall outside the context of Darwin’s “conditions of life,” which require links from what organisms eat to signaling and sensing and the behavior of other organisms.

For example, Schrodinger (1944) linked excretion from mammals to sunlight as the source of anti-entropic virucidal energy used to support all ecosystems. All serious scientists have done that since Thomas Hunt Morgan won the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for linking chromosomes to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance long before most people understood what the term autophagy means.

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Politicized science: The demise of RNA-mediated.com?

A post-Presidential election change indicates that politicized science in the USA may be the cause of the steady decline in the number of pages read on this domain. The decline is paired with an increased bounce rate each time I post anything that pits the science of creation against the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian theories.
If this domain were used in the context of a social science experiment, the statistics would show that ridiculous theories have left the USA relatively defenseless against the threat of gene-editing technology. That technology has has been advanced in countries where students are not taught to believe in mutation-driven evolution.
See: Combating evolution: Battlefield medicine vs politicized science (December 4, 2016)
Each example of energy-dependent de novo creation is met with an increase number of bounces and decreased number of pages read. See:

RNA-mediated.com metrics

Founded February 2015: 43937 page views since inception until November 15, 2016
Last 90 days till Jun 7, 2016 4977 page views 14.62% bounce rate 3.1 pages per session
Last 30 days till Jun 7, 2016 2087 page views 18.07% bounce rate 2.9 pages per session
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Last 30 days till Nov 15, 2016 2407 page views 14.66% bounce rate 3.29 per session (the domain was down for 2 days)
Last 90 days till December 5, 2016 5859 page views 21.36% bounce rate 3.01 per session
Last 30 days till December 5, 2016 1782 page views 48.91% bounce rate 2.28 per session
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See for comparison: Complex Cellular Conversations about Food Allergies

Previous posts have emphasized that complex cellular conversations determine physiology. This is certainly the case with food allergies. The fact that we don’t have many more allergies with so many new chemicals in food, demonstrates how T cells are trained to avoid food allergies.

The mechanisms are now found to be varied and very complex. This constant communication between gut cells, microbes, T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and many other cells are what produce tolerance to food and lack of food allergies.

Jon Lieff is on the verge of refuting neo-Darwinian theories with accurate representations of how the innate immune system links energy-dependent autophagy from natural selection for codon optimaility to ecological adaptations via the physiology of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Watch as he continues to put everything known about energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems into his representations of the complexity, which others have thoroughly detailed during the past decade.
See for comparison:

What is Life? (first published in 1944) from the reprint edition.

How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy? — Roger Penrose, 8 August 1991

Sometime soon, Jon Lieff may link nutrient-energy to the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs_ and try to put chemotaxis and phototaxis back into the context of alternative splicings of pre-mRNA and ridiculous theories about evolution.
If so, he will make it perfectly clear that all others failed to include any creationist perspectives or information on virus-driven energy theft and the loss of GPCRs.
The loss of GPCRs links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology except that which is biophysically constrained by the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See: A Framework for integrating multiple biological networks to predict microRNA-disease associations
Has anyone ever successfully taught a theorist the difference between an algorithm and experimental evidence of energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect? For example, the experimental evidence shows that Carl Woese was wrong.
The experimental evidence of virus-driven energy theft links Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor to the Analysis of Viral and Cellular MicroRNAs in EBV-Infected Cells via everything known to creationists about the anti-entropic energy of virucidal ultraviolet light.
See: Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk

…the evidence mentioned above indicates that viruses likely arose from their hosts and not the other way around. As molecular biologist and biochemist Peter Borger notes, “The most parsimonious answer is: the RNA viruses got their genes from their hosts.”6

See also:  Who rules the waves? – Viruses might just be bit players in the drama of the seas. Then again, they could be major actors