A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evolution outside the context of "the light of evolution"

Summary: The claim that two mutations led to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum cannot be supported with the claim that only one amino acid substitution differentiates the cell type of two different primate species (gorillas and humans) from two similar species (chimpanzees and humans). The fact that mutations are not amino acid substitutions can be supported in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans.
Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system (2015) with my emphasis. As a service to the community this article is available to view for free.

After 96 hours of incubation of AR2 and Pf0-2x at room temperature on SMM, two breakout mutations were visible, conferring first slow (AR2S and Pf0-2xS) and then fast (AR2F and Pf0-2xF) spreading over the agar surface (Fig. 1A). The AR2F strain produces flagella, but we could not detect flagella in electron microscopy samples for AR2S (Fig. 1B). Genome resequencing revealed a single-nucleotide point mutation in ntrB in strain AR2S, causing an amino acid substitution within the PAS domain of the histidine kinase sensor NtrB [Thr97→Pro97 (T97P)] (13). The fast-spreading strain AR2F had acquired an additional point mutation in the σ54-dependent EBP gene ntrC, which alters an amino acid (R442C) within the DNA binding domain (Table 1 and table S2).

The claim that two mutations led to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum cannot be supported with the claim that only one amino acid substitution differentiates the cell type of two different primate species (gorillas and humans) from two similar species (chimpanzees and humans). The fact that mutations are not amino acid substitutions can be supported in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans.
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model for comparison to: Mutation-Driven Evolution
The cell biology game “Cytosis” will help to end the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense touted in the context of mutation-driven evolution.
Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game
A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!
The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA causes the mutations that all serious scientists have linked to all pathology. Protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled. In Dobzhansky’s example, the alpha chains of hemoglobin differ “… in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.” Pseudoscientists must now try to place that fact back into the context of their ridiculous theories without linking a single amino acid substitution in the organized genomes of all other species to all biodiversity on Earth, which is what some Young Earth Creationists (YEC) have done.
Watch as the pseudoscientists try and fail to account for more than 1200 nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled hemoglobin variants in human populations.
The pseudoscientists must ignore the facts about the hemoglobin variants: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations (2014) with my emphasis

Hemoglobinopathies are the commonest single-gene genetic disorders in humans, resulting from pathogenic genome variants in the human α-like and β-like globin gene clusters (reviewed in 1). Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [INsertions/DELetionS] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

See for comparison: In the Light of Evolution

In this cross journal series, BMC Biology, BMC Evolutionary Biology and Biology Direct  bring together a collection of articles exploring how evolutionary principles applied across the spectrum of biology can shed light on a diverse range of topics from molecules to ecosystems, and with a particular emphasis on human genetics, interactions with the environment, and health and disease. Selected research articles will be included in addition to invited reviews and comment.

We will consider Research manuscripts of exceptional interest on the following topics (with my emphasis)
•    Evolution of morphological change
•    Understanding and treating disease in the light of evolution
•    Origins of evolutionary complexity
•    Human evolutionary biology in a post-genomic era
•    Anthropogenic effects on evolution
•    Evolutionary insights into genome variation, and vice versa
•    Host-parasite interactions
•    Evolutionary lessons from large-scale genomics
•    Insights from ancient DNA on human origins
•    Molecular mechanisms of evolution
•    Applied microbial evolution 
•    Evolutionary ecology
•    Genomics and the evolution of development

The only consideration of the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction that links RNA-directed DNA methylation from atoms to ecosystems via fixation of amino acid substitutions in organized genomes may be the articles about  Host-parasite interactions.  The interactions involve energy-dependent ecological adaptations or extinction. Virus-driven energy theft causes the extinctions via the theft oif quantized energy as information. Theft comes after the creation of virucidal light, which is the ultraviolet light that comes from sunlight. That fact, which indicates “agency” in the context of “creation” is not likely to be considered in the context of Insights from ancient DNA on human origins.
Clearly, Dobzhansky (1973) knew that all neo-Darwinian theorists were biologically uninformed science idiots and that they always would be. The fact that he placed the virucidal energy of ultraviolet light into his expressed “Creationist” views with a title that refuted all the pseudoscientific nonsense attests to his sense of humor, and the inability of theorists to “get the joke.”

…organic diversity becomes, however, reasonable and understandable if the Creator has created the living world not by caprice but by evolution propelled by natural selection. It is wrong to hold creation and evolution as mutually exclusive alternatives. I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God’s, or Nature’s, method of Creation. Creation is not an event that happened in 4004 B.C.; it is a process that began some 10 billion years ago and is still under way.

There is no support for the ridiculous claim that Creation is a “process” that began some 10 billion years ago. There is a model that places all human biodiversity into the context of food energy-dependent ecological adaptations that protect all organisms from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in the context of their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Watch as the facts about Creation are removed from consideration because the focus of these articles is on support for ridiculous theories. Remember this:

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull

  1. Dosage-sensitive genes in evolution and disease

    For a subset of genes in our genome a change in gene dosage, by duplication or deletion, causes a phenotypic effect. These dosage-sensitive genes may confer an advantage upon copy number change, but more typic…

  2. Q&A: Where did the Neanderthals go?

    Genomic evidence has demonstrated that humans and Neanderthals interbred. Today, the genomes of most individuals outside Africa contain 2–3% Neanderthal DNA. However, it is still hotly debated why the Neandert…
  3. Biological function in the twilight zone of sequence conservation

    Strong DNA conservation among divergent species is an indicator of enduring functionality. With weaker sequence conservation we enter a vast ‘twilight zone’ in which sequence subject to transient or lower cons…
  4. Examining non-LTR retrotransposons in the context of the evolving primate brain

    Researchers have long sought to understand the genetic basis of the cognitive differences between primates, with particular focus on the human brain. Although all mutational types have worked in concert with e…
  5. Q&A: What is human language, when did it evolve and why should we care?

    Human language is unique among all forms of animal communication. It is unlikely that any other species, including our close genetic cousins the Neanderthals, ever had language, and so-called sign ‘language’ i…
  6. Peto’s Paradox: how has evolution solved the problem of cancer prevention?

    The risk of developing cancer should theoretically increase with both the number of cells and the lifespan of an organism. However, gigantic animals do not get more cancer than humans, suggesting that super-hu…
  7. Non-model model organisms

    Model organisms are widely used in research as accessible and convenient systems to study a particular area or question in biology. Traditionally only a handful of organisms have been widely studied, but moder…
  8. Can a biologist fix a smartphone?—Just hack it!

    Biological systems integrate multiscale processes and networks and are, therefore, viewed as difficult to dissect. However, because of the clear-cut separation between the software code (the information encode…
  9. Open questions: Tackling Darwin’s “instincts”: the genetic basis of behavioral evolution

    All of us have marveled at the remarkable diversity of animal behaviors in nature.
"Evolution of Man. - Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants.

Robert Sapolsky's legacy of atheistic pseudoscientific nonsense

Summary: Not only does everything known to serious scientists about energy link RNA synthesis to life, everything McEwen and others have published links nutrient stress and/or social stress to the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA and all pathology.
As moderator of the International Society for Human Ethology (ISHE), a not-for-profit scientific organization that consistently touts pseudoscientific nonsense in the context of neo-Darwinian evolution, Jay R. Feierman’s attacks on the works of serous scientists are increasing in frequency and in magnitude. Yesterday, he posted this link to a series of 25 lectures by Robert Sapolsky.  You could spend ~25 hours to learn what Sapolsky was teaching to students until 2011, or ignore everything he has claimed because he has been teaching atheistic pseudoscientific nonsense in the context of neo-Darwinian theory.

Today, Jay F. Feierman’s attacks on the works of serous scientists began with this:
Examining non-LTR retrotransposons in the context of the evolving primate brain

Although all mutational types have worked in concert with evolutionary forces to generate the current human brain, in this review we will explore the impact of mobile elements…

Robert Sapolsky may be responsible for many of these ridiculous reports on the evolving primate brain. Sapolsky studied under Bruce McEwen, but Sapolsky failed to link energy as information from an endogenous substrate in all cell types to the light-activated creation of ATP and the creation of RNA in microbes like P. fluorescens.
With exposure to ultraviolet light, this species (P. fluorescens) fluoresces. The weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum was also reported in this species. The energy-dependent physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction links the creation of the sun from the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA to the weekend resurrection of an irreducibly complex functional structure and all biophysically constrained biodiversity on Earth via McEwen et al., (1964). Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”
Not only does everything known to serious scientists about energy link RNA synthesis to life, everything McEwen and others have published links nutrient stress and/or social stress to the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA and all pathology.
Sapolsky is reported to be an atheist in a Wikipedia entry. That should not matter to anyone who is capable of linking quantized energy from the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum. See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception But, for those of us who have followed McEwen’s lead, and done that, Sapolsky’s lectures attest to his atheistic ignorance of biologically-based cause and effect.
His lectures can be viewed as examples of the human idiocy that Feynman mentioned in the context of the different measures used to make claims about energy as information. The origin of information still appears to come from the sun despite the fact that Feynman used the example of food energy. The history of publications on how the virus-driven energy theft of quantized energy has been linked from mutations to all pathology now includes information about how human endogenous retroviruses must be biophysically constrained.
The information is linked from energy as information to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in Bombyx mori to the control of cellular processing in mammals by everything I have published since 1995 and everything known about the creation of the innate immune system in bacteria (CRISPR). The works of those who claim that the emergence of energy and “evolution did it” can be compared to the works of serious scientists.
See for examples: Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors (2012)
Transposable-element associated small RNAs in Bombyx mori genome (2012)
Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses (2012)
Control of mammalian retrotransposons by cellular RNA processing activities (2014)
Protein-Coding Genes’ Retrocopies and Their Functions (2017)
Identification and characterization of two putative microRNAs encoded by Bombyx mori cypovirus (2017)

This is the first report that an insect double stranded RNA virus may generate miRNAs and the results obtained will benefit the future study of the functions of BmCPV-encoded miRNAs on viral replication and virus-host interaction.

Pheromones (Ectohormones) in Insects (1959)

Independently of Butenandt & Hecker (14, 50), the fractionation of Bombyx extracts and purification of the pheromone was also reported on by Makino et at. (71).

Effects of Carnitine on Fatty-Acid Oxidation by Muscle (1959) by FRITZ, IRVING B. and MCEWEN, BRUCE
Since 1959, McEwen and many others have linked food energy and pheromones to the biophysically constrained viral latency that ensures the survival of all species.  See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
Since the time I met him in 1995, Jay R. Feierman has contributed to the unnecessary suffering and premature death of thousands via his misrepresentations of the facts about food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
See: Environment and Neurodegenerative Diseases: an Update on miRNA Role
I’m beginning to think that the most obvious way to prevent the deaths by suicide of our veterans is not something that will be discussed in any scientific forum or on most forms of social media.
See for comparison:
7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
7/26/13
Jay R. Feierman: I am absolutely certain that if you showed this statement to any professor of biology or genetics in any accredited university anywhere in the world that 100% of them would say that “Random mutations are the substrate upon which directional natural selection acts” is a correct and true statement.