human-evolution

Sexual differentiation of cell types in plants

Antheridiogen determines sex in ferns via a spatiotemporally split gibberellin synthesis pathway
Excerpt: “Homosporous ferns have evolved a mechanism to favor cross-fertilization by controlling the sex ratio among individuals or prothalli within the population with the aid of antheridiogens. Antheridiogens are pheromones…”
Reported as:

Researchers find ferns communicate with one another to decide gender

Excerpt: “The intercommunication abilities demonstrated by the ferns is an example of a growing field in botany that some have taken to calling plant neurobiology—when plants exhibit behavior that resembles activities of animals.”
My comment to Science Magazine
Biologically-based cause and effect in these ferns appears to parallel what is known about biophysically-constrained thermodynamic cycles of nutrient-dependent protein biosynthesis and degradation in other genera, which is controlled by the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones.
From an atoms to ecosystems perspective this links nutrient uptake to RNA-directed DNA methylation; RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions; and to pheromone-controlled chromosomal rearrangements associated with ecological speciation but not necessarily associated with mutations, natural selection, and the evolution of biodiversity.
Have homosporous ferns somehow evolved a mechanism that appears to link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man? To me it seems more likely that ecological variation led to RNA-mediated ecological adaptations like those that are manifested in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of other living organisms with cell types that are differentiated by amino acid substitutions.
For examples, see: Signaling Crosstalk: Integrating Nutrient Availability and Sex “The mechanism by which one signaling pathway regulates a second provides insight into how cells integrate multiple stimuli to produce a coordinated response.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3932994/
See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction “Indications that GnRH peptide plays an important role in the control of sexual behaviors suggest that pheromone effects on these behaviors might also involve GnRH neurons.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16290036
The link from microbes (yeasts) to mammals seems to be nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions, like those Dobzhansky (1973) reported in Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.” http://www.jstor.org/stable/4444260
If what others are reporting in the context of mutations in the Ebola viruses are ecological adaptations, our response to the threat may need to be reconsidered in the context of reports like this one: Identification of two amino acid residues on Ebola virus glycoprotein 1 critical for cell entry. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168170206001882
My comment to the phys.org site:

“…plants exhibit behavior that resembles activities of animals.”

That suggests conserved molecular mechanisms of the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction extend across all genera, as does everything else currently known about the physics, chemistry, and molecular

biology of biophysically-constrained protein biosynthesis and degradation. Indeed, it would be incredibly odd if these “…ferns have evolved an antheridiogen-mediated communication system“The communication system clearly exemplifies how ecological variation leads to ecological adaptations via RNA-directed DNA methylation and amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types, which are manifested in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes and ecological speciation in all other genera.
If ferns somehow evolved that level of organism-level complexity, their evolution would seem like a miracle that could be compared to their ability to ecologically adapt.
terrarium-eco-system

In theory, or supported by experimental evidence?

Carl Zimmer typically makes statements like the one below without prefacing them with “in theory.” That’s how he establishes the bias towards evolutionary theory in nearly everything he reports.
For example: “During the development of eggs and sperm, each pair of chromosomes swaps pieces of their DNA. Over the generations, long stretches of DNA get broken into smaller ones, like a deck of cards repeatedly shuffled.
Inaccurate statements like that one make it appear that the evolution of biodiversity occurs across millions of years during which accumulated mutations somehow lead to fixed changes in the amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all cells in all individuals of all different species. Accurate representations of biologically-based cause and effect include RNA-mediated events, which link ecological variation to nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions and chromosomal rearrangements.
The amino acid substitutions and chromosomal rearrangements occur in the absence of mutations that perturb protein folding. Instead, they help to ensure biodiversity via the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones. Pheromones control the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man, which is how they lead from nutrient-uptake to the control of biodiversity via conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation in all species.
The alternative that Zimmer and others like him continue to tout involves a ridiculous theory that accumulated mutations somehow lead to natural selection and the evolution of biodiversity. No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect suggests that is possible. Furthermore, the amino acid-dependent protein folding that links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man is biophysically-constrained. Simply put, that means the Laws of Physics prevent mutation-driven evolution by placing chemical ecology in a position that ensures what Darwin called his ‘conditions of life’ have been met. Minimally, his ‘conditions of life’ have always been nutrient-dependent, which is probably why evidence of RNA-mediated events clearly links nutrient uptake to ecological adaptations.
Until 1973, most evolutionary theorists could have excused themselves from intelligent conversations about the conserved molecular biology of amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation. However, from the time that Dobzhansky stated his creationist perspective in the terms of evolutionary theory, it has become clearer that amino acids substitutions differentiate cell types in all species. In Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution, Dobzhanksy wrote: “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.”
No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect suggests the single amino acids substitutions that differentiate the cell types of these primates or the cell types of any other species can arise via a mutation or the accumulation of mutations. All experimental evidence and all model organisms that sexually reproduce via ligand-specific receptor-mediated fertilization exemplifies the fact that … exosomes are the carriers of a flow of information from somatic cells to gametes…That fact, like all other facts about sex differences in cell types indicates …that somatic RNA is transferred to sperm cells, which can therefore act as the final recipients of somatic cell-derived information.
Carl Zimmer is one of two people I know about who has written a book about viruses, see A Planet of Viruses. I’m not sure what planet his information came from, since it does not appear to include anything pertinent to links between the epigenetic landscape and the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man. However, a book published 2 years earlier by Luis Villarreal, see Origin of group identity: viruses, addiction and cooperation, includes the mention of pheromones 79 times.
Pheromones control the physiology of nutrient-dependent reproduction in living organisms via nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated events that link amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation via chromosomal rearrangements in all organisms. That’s why Zimmer’s book is of much less interest to me than Villarreal’s book.
Like his articles, Zimmer seems to be stuck touting evolutionary theory at a time when others have moved forward by providing experimental evidence of biologically based facts that link microbes to man via conserved molecular mechanisms, not via mutations and natural selection that Zimmer thinks is the basis for the evolution of biodiversity. Like Villarreal’s articles, those written by other serious scientists continue to attest to that fact that Carl Zimmer’s pseudoscientific nonsense will be exposed each time new experimental evidence is published that links RNA-mediated events to increasing organismal complexity with no mention of evolutionary events whatsoever.
See also: Body Cells Transfer Genetic Info Directly Into Sperm Cells, Amazing Study Finds.
Also, on July 31, 2013 Sayer Ji wrote: “Hereditary trauma: Inheritance of traumas and how they may be mediated”
Excerpt: “Mansuy and her team have succeeded in identifying a key component of these processes: short RNA molecules. These RNAs are synthetized from genetic information (DNA) by enzymes that read specific sections of the DNA (genes) and use them as template to produce corresponding RNAs. Other enzymes then trim these RNAs into mature forms. Cells naturally contain a large number of different short RNA molecules called microRNAs. They have regulatory functions, such as controlling how many copies of a particular protein are made.
See my comments on: Scientists unmask a piece in the puzzle of how the inheritance of traumas is mediated
1) “…traumatic stress alters the amount of several microRNAs in the blood, brain and sperm – while some microRNAs were produced in excess, others were lower than in the corresponding tissues or cells of control animals. These alterations resulted in misregulation of cellular processes normally controlled by these microRNAs.”
Nutrient stress and social stress act on the same central neuronal system that links epigenetic effects of food odors and social odors called pheromones on the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and cell type differentiation to mammalian behavior.
For details, see: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
The review follows from detailed representations with cross species examples of cause and effect in my 2013 published review and it adds the required details on the physics and chemistry of protein folding.
2) Kohl’s Laws of Biology: “The ecological origin of all biological laws is apparent 1) in the context of systems biology [91]; 2) in the context of the metabolism of nutrients by microbes [157]; and 3) in the context of how the metabolism of nutrients results in species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction [158]. Taken together, the systems biology of nutrient metabolism to species-specific pheromones, which control the physiology of reproduction, can be expressed in a summary of Kohl’s Laws of Biology: 1) Life is nutrient-dependent. See for review [2, 31]. The physiology of reproduction is pheromone-controlled. See for review [30]. In the context of nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected human reproduction, it is clearer that the epigenetic effects of human pheromones integrate neuroendocrinology and behavior [104], which includes the neuroendocrinology of mammalian behavior associated with the development of sexual preferences [159].”
RNA-sequencing / exome sequencing now link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all organisms. Today’s news stresses the importance of RNA-mediated events to the understanding of differences between undifferentiated cancerous cell types and controlled cell type differentiation. New genome-editing technique enables rapid analysis of genes mutated in tumors. Simply put, researchers have applied what is known about RNA-mediated gene editing to help determine what goes wrong with cell metabolism processes in cancer cells. Why aren’t the theromodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation limited by the biophysical constraints on protein folding that enable typical cell type differentiation via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man? This rapid analysis of RNA-mediated genome editing eliminates the need for mouse models of what happens when genes are knocked out or knocked in. No need to wait for the mice to grow and manifest differences in their morphological and behavioral phenotypes as if mutations caused typical and atypical cell type differentiation as evolutionary theorist have told us occurs in the context of natural selection and the evolution of biodiversity.
 

achiral-glycine

No understanding of biodiversity

No single explanation for biodiversity in Madagascar

Excerpt: “The study is part of a larger body of research aimed at identifying the climate, geology and other features of the environment that help bring new species of plants and animals into being in an area, and then sustain once they’re there.”
My comment: Like many studies, this one posits that new species automagically arise and are somehow sustained in ecological niches.
Excerpt: “What governs the distribution of, say, a particular group of frogs isn’t the same as what governs the distribution of a particular group of snakes,” Brown said. “A one-size-fits-all model doesn’t exist.”
My comment: Apparently, these researchers do not understand the fact that RNA-directed DNA methylation links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of all species via conserved molecular mechanisms that lead to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction manifested in increasing organismal complexity. Alternatively, they want others to believe there is no model of how nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biodiversity arises. For example, see: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. “Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.” If the model is ignored, the claim can be made that one model links nutrient uptake to RNA-mediated biodiversity doesn’t exist.
Excerpt: “…each group of animals experiences its environment in a way that is unique to its life history and other biological characteristics,” Yoder said.”
Cell type differentiation in each individual of all groups of animals is nutrient-dependent. RNA-mediated events leads to amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all tissues of all organs in all organ systems that arise in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction that links biodiversity from ecological variation in nutrient availability to ecological adaptation via reproduction.
Abstract excerpt: A necessarily complex model to explain the biogeography of the amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar
“We conclude that patterns are influenced by a combination of diversification processes rather than by a single predominant mechanism. A ‘one-size-fits-all’ model does not exist.”
My comment: The model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated biodiversity has existed since 1996. It has been used to explain all biodiversity in the context of systems biology and niche construction based on details of conserved molecular epigenetics: “Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species…” There is no other way that cell type differentiation occurs in any cell of any species.
See also: Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors.
“Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000).”

neuronal-plasticity

Behavioral ecology: please continue to believe in our fantasies

Behavioral ecology and genomics: new directions, or just a more detailed map?

Excerpt 1): “Transcriptome sequencing, often called RNAseq, both sequences and quantifies the portions of the genome being transcribed under conditions of interest (Wang et al. 2009; De Wit et al. 2012). Such information can be used to identify differentially expressed genes and the mutations underlying variation in gene expression and can lead to the identification of functionally important genes or suites of genes that function together (“modules”) to produce adaptive behaviors.”
Excerpt 2):  “1. Having a sequenced genome, or chromosomal region, or a transcriptome, is not necessarily helpful.”
Excerpt 3):   “4. New model systems, facilitated by the ease of obtaining genome sequences for a variety of organisms, could be extremely salutary for behavioral ecology (but see #1).”
What else can we expect from evolutionary biologists like Marlene Zuk, who have championed the role of evolution without details of an evolutionary event that links biologically-based cause and effect to increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. See: Paleofantasy: What Evolution Really Tells Us about Sex, Diet, and How We Live
Excerpt: “Armed with a razor-sharp wit and brilliant, eye-opening research, Zuk takes us to the cutting edge of biology to show that evolution can work much faster than was previously realized, meaning that we are not biologically the same as our caveman ancestors.”

My comment: We cannot be biologically different than our ancestors, but Zuk and Balenger would now like others to believe two more things:
1) RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links ecological variation from amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation and biodiversity in species from microbes to man, may be extremely beneficial in the context of behavioral ecology.
2) Use of RNA/transcription sequencing to explain how the epigenetic landscape becomes the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man may not necessarily be helpful.
The reality of Zuk’s claims is best expressed as RNA-mediated events explain how ecological variation leads to ecological adaptations without the pseudoscientific nonsense of mutations. Biologically-based explanations may not benefit evolutionary biologists who would rather tout pseudoscientific nonsensene about the evolution of biodiversity as they continue to misrepresent biologically-based cause and effect.
Indeed, factual representations of RNA-mediated events force evolutionary biologists like Zuk to describe evolutionary events or stop claiming
1) that evolutionary events occur and that
2) they automagically lead to the evolution of biophysically-constrained biodiversity via
3) some unknown biologically plausible mechanism that
4) is not nutrient-dependent and not pheromone-controlled.
See also: (1) An integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data for human heart, kidney and liver and (2) Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology.
Both reviews link what we detailed about how cell type differentiation occurs in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: “Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.”
(1): “…integrative analysis of methylation array and RNA-Seq data can be utilized to discover the global regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation and suggests that DNA methylation plays an important role in normal tissue differentiation via modulation of gene expression.”
(2) It has become obvious that the molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation, such as alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA, are conserved across species and that RNA-mediated events link DNA methylation and transciptome sequencing from ecological variation to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to man. It is equally obvious that health and fitness are determined in the context of nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types via RNA-mediated events, not via evolutionary events.
Others, like Zuk, may continue to believe in their fantasies or to claim that RNA sequencing provides nothing more than a more detailed map of evolutionary events. However, the fact that they have never described a biologically-based evolutionary event precludes use of transciptome sequencing and a detailed map of RNA-mediated events for anything other than a refutation of the pseudoscientific nonsense they have heretofore touted.
See: Genomes in turmoil: Quantification of genome dynamics in prokaryote supergenomes
Excerpt 1): “The rates of 4 types of elementary evolutionary events (hereinafter Genome Dynamics Events or GDE)…”
Excerpt 2): “Conceivably, genome dynamics is highly sensitive to local ecological factors the exact nature of which remains to be elucidated.’
My comment: Genome Dynamics Events are RNA-mediated by nutrient-uptake and pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. We elucidated that in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.
What Evolution Really Tells Us about Sex, Diet, and How We Live is nothing. How we live is determined by the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations of our ancestors, and epigenetic effects on our hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors. We live in the same context as our ancestors: ecological variation and ecological adaptations. We are not mutating into another species and were not naturally selected to evolve. Mutations perturb protein folding and cause disease and disorders not evolution.
 

achiral-glycine

Physics, Chemistry, and Molecular biology (PCMb)

Physics, Chemistry, and Molecular biology (PCMb) link ecological variation to ecological adaptations via a model of gene-cell-tissue-organ-organ system complexity that I first presented in 1992. After adding gene activation by pheromones, I co-authored a book that linked the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction across species from microbes to man: The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002)
Since then, others have written books that claimed that pheromones evolved: Pheromones and Animal Behaviour (2003/2014) and one claimed that mammals don’t produce or respond to pheromones: The Great Pheromone Myth (2010).
Ignorance of biophysically-contrained biologically-based cause and effect continue to prevent scientific progress. Others have started to speak out against the pseudoscientific nonsense of evolutionary theorists and psychologists who have limited progress that could have been made by serious scientists from many disciplines. The theorists have continued to tout their pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations, natural selection and evolution, for more than 17 years after we detailed the facts about how epigenetically-effected RNA-mediated events link nutrient-uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man.

Many others must speak up each time they read or hear about the statistical nonsense of evolutionary theory as if it were supported by experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect. Tell the theorists to start making sense. Cite Genomes in turmoil: Quantification of genome dynamics in prokaryote supergenomes and quote from it: “The rates of 4 types of elementary evolutionary events (hereinafter Genome Dynamics Events or GDE)…”
Help make others approach the psychology and the practice of medicine from the only perspective that makes sense: Physics, Chemistry, and Molecular biology (PCMb) — not the pseudoscientific nonsense of theorists. RNA-directed DNA methylation links RNA-mediated events to amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all individuals in all species.

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

poster-from-jesse

Insect homology and diversity attributed to mutations

Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies

Excerpt: “Surprisingly, our results suggest that modulation of this conserved developmental gene has occurred in tandem between these two deeply divergent butterfly lineages, implying an unexpected and remarkable level of predictability in the evolutionary process.”
Reported as: A single evolutionary road may lead to Rome
Excerpt: “Copying errors and genomic viruses directly lead to the wing patterns of these beautiful butterflies,” Gallant said. “It’s these accidents that allow the evolutionary process to move forward. When I look over a field of butterflies, it makes me wonder what types of ‘mistakes’ are happening right now that may lead to important evolutionary changes years from now? What evolutionary processes will we someday be able to predict?”
My comment: Dobzhansky (1964) predicted that bird-watchers and butterfly-collectors would never become serious scientists, and his predictions are still coming true in reports like this one.
Two more generations of researchers have since been taught to believe in a ridiculous theory about mutations, natural selection. and the evolution of biodiversity, which is clearly nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled by RNA-mediated events in species from microbes to man. Instead, this group finds that the nutrient-dependent ecological adaptations manifested in the wing morphology of butterflies is caused by mutations that somehow predictably lead to evolution.
Would that be by natural selection — instead of by the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction? It could be if perturbed protein-folding linked nutrient uptake to increasing organismal complexity. But in all other species from microbes to man the epigenetic landscape is linked to the biophysically-constrained physical landscape of DNA in organized genomes via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Take Darwin’s pigeons, for example, because 1) the EphB2 gene is a strong candidate for the derived head crest phenotype  2) that trait evolved just once and 3) it spread throughout the species. 4) The crest also originates early in development by 5) localized molecular mechanisms and the reversal of feather bud polarity.” See: Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Head Crest in the Rock Pigeon
Link the EphB2 gene and nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions and chromosomal rearrangements in white-throated sparrows to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and you have the established link to morphology and behavior of the butterflies, birds, bees, and all other species on this planet via conserved molecular mechanisms.
Try to link mutations and natural selection for anything but food to biodiversity and you must invent theories about how random changes lead to predictable outcomes via changes in one gene in vertebrates and invertebrates.
Go ahead, make my day! Watch the butterflies and make predictions about evolutionary processes. Keep touting your ridiculous theories as serious scientists recognize why Dobzhansky (1973) mentioned that  “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.”
He seems to have predicted serious scientists would learn about nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all species, but that evolutionary theorists would not. Did he believe the theorists would never be more than butterfly collectors and bird-watchers who didn’t learn anything about molecular biology? Did he believe that theorists could never grasp the facts about how ecological variation leads to ecological adaptations via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man?

.

neuronal-plasticity

The quantum biology of consciousness

Everything known about quantum biology “…suggests conscious experience is intrinsically connected to the fine-scale structure of space–time geometry, and that consciousness could be deeply related to the operation of the laws of the universe.” See for review: Consciousness in the universe: A review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory.
These laws of the universe might lead others to think in terms of “laws of biology” (biological laws). Indeed, many informed scientists could expect that ecological, social, and neurogenic niche construction would result in socio-cognitive niche construction, which appears to be a manifestation of increasing complexity in ecologically adapted organisms. For constrast, nothing known about mutations and natural selection leads to any informative explanation of biologically based cause and effect that involves any laws of biology. Evolutionary theory is useless because only biological laws link sensory input from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man. Thus, the problem for evolutionary theorists is that cause and effect occur outside the context of the evolution of biodiversity.
In addition, we now know that cause and effect occur within the context of Darwin’s ‘conditions of life.’ See: Quantum biology: Algae evolved to switch quantum coherence on and off. The  news article reports that mutations perturb the function of  amino acid substitutions that link photosynthesis in algae to the laws of biology in other organisms via nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions. In this report, light is the nutrient.
In other organisms, amino acid substitutions enable ecological adaptations that result from ecological variation, which includes variation in light linked to ecological adaptations manifested in eyes and in eye regression in blind cave fish. However,  these ecological adaptations are perturbed by mutations. Thus, attributing either the evolution of eyes or eye regression to mutations is a false attribution.
In the context of the quantum biology of consciousness, “They found that in two species a genetic mutation has led to the insertion of an extra amino acid that changes the structure of the protein complex, disrupting coherence.” This suggests that in all animals, the amino acid substitutions appear to link cell type differentiation via nutrient uptake and metabolism to species specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction.
Everything known about the photosynthetic, micronutrient, and macronutrient pathways that link ecological variation via base pair changes to ecological adaptations shows that mutations perturb the protein folding that is required for niche construction to result in increasing organismal complexity via amino acid substitutions. Mutations simply cannot result in the organismal complexity manifested in organisms with eyes.
For contrast, see: Evolution of the first genetic cells and the universal genetic code: A hypothesis based on macromolecular coevolution of RNA and proteins “The origin of homochiral amino acids and sugars is assessed. The integrated development of the Universal Genetic Code in shown in eight steps. Mutation rates limited the sizes of early nucleic acid genomes to about 200 bases.”
In the context of Kohl’s Laws of Biology, achiral glycine links the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled stabilized genomes of yeasts and mammals via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. See:  Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems. Perhaps it will shed light on how the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in algae is connected across species via amino acid substitutions in organisms from microbes to man. But, even if you are unable to see the light, there is still no experimental evidence that links it (e.g., the light) as a nutrient source to nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations.
As I said once before: “It’s time for biophysicists to tell theorists and pathologists how to differentiate between theories about the genesis of different cell types and the biological facts about the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations that enable the genesis of different cell types in individuals of different species. Simply put, it’s time to stop trying to explain ecological adaptations in the context of mutations and evolution.”
See also: ‘Quantum smell’ idea gains ground” Let there be light as a nutrient source for life and cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions — as noted by Dobzhansky (1973): Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution. As it turned out, nothing about evolution makes sense except in the light of what’s known about light as the first nutrient source for ecological variation and ecological adaptations. For comparison, mutation-driven evolution is pseudoscientific nonsense. Sunlight, for example, alters levels of the steroid hormone vitamin D, which stabilizes the genome of human populations in areas where malarial parasites forced the nutrient-dependent ecological adaptation of lactose persistence.