Environmental selection is natural selection

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk was published on April 23, 2018

The ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene has a range of pleiotropic effects, including sweat gland density, incisor shoveling, and mammary gland ductal branching. The frequency of the human-specific EDAR V370A allele appears to be uniquely elevated in North and East Asian and New World populations due to a bout of positive selection likely to have occurred circa 20,000 y ago. The dental pleiotropic effects of this allele suggest an even higher occurrence among indigenous people in the Western Hemisphere before European colonization. We hypothesize that selection on EDAR V370A occurred in the Beringian refugium because it increases mammary ductal branching, and thereby may amplify the transfer of critical nutrients in vitamin D-deficient conditions to infants via mothers’ milk. This hypothesized selective context for EDAR V370A was likely intertwined with selection on the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster because it is known to modulate lipid profiles transmitted to milk from a vitamin D-rich diet high in omega-3 fatty acids.

The authors placed my claims about the mouse-to-human model of the EDAR V370A variant back into the context of an evolutionary adaptation. They seem unwilling to accept the fact that the  EDAR V370A variant is a nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptation in mice and in humans. It links energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality.
The EDAR V370A allele is also known as rs3827760, 1540T/C, 370A, or Val370Ala. It is a SNP in the ectodysplasin A receptor EDAR gene on chromosome 2.
See the author’s copy of my invited review of nutritional epigenetics, which was returned without review :
Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)

In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China. Apparently, the effect of the epiallele was adaptive and it was manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In another mammal, such as the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is probably due to a nutrient-dependent epigenetic effect on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones appear to control the nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected hormone-dependent organization and hormone-activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates and in microbes as previously indicated.

The ecological adaptations, which appear to be manifested in the human population are detailed in these two reports [162-163]. The ecological adaptations are likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. If so, ecological variation probably leads to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction, which is manifested in increasing organismal complexity and species diversity. If not, there may be something as yet unknown about mutations and evolution that makes sense in the light of what is known about nutritional epigenetics and the molecular biology of species from microbes to man.

More than four years later, biologically uninformed theorists have again tried to make natural selection something different than environmental selection. Nina G. Jablonski is one of the co-authors. I’m tempted to think that all the others also are biologically uninformed science idiots who cannot link physical and chemistry from subatomic particles to ecosystems via what organisms eat and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which biophysically constrains viral latency in all living genera.
See also: microRNA and ADAR1 microRNA
For example:
Combinatory RNA-Sequencing Analyses Reveal a Dual Mode of Gene Regulation by ADAR1 in Gastric Cancer (April 25, 2018)
Virus-encoded miRNAs in Ebola virus disease (April 24, 2018)


Enzyme-constrained interethnic diversity (7)

Summary:  I suspect that John Hewitt will soon publish an article on the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and enzymes. He is most likely to link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information to all pathology without challenging pseudoscientists and other science journalists to revise their ridiculous claims about mutation-driven evolution.
Digital medicine, on its way to being just plain medicine

There are already nearly 30,000 peer-reviewed English-language scientific journals, producing an estimated 2.5 million articles a year.

Until recently, no published works linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from ATP to the creation of RNA and biophysically constrained viral latency.
But see: EXD2 governs germ stem cell homeostasis and lifespan by promoting mitoribosome integrity and translation January 15, 2018

“Loss of EXD2 results in defective mitochondrial translation, impaired respiration, reduced ATP production…” and “…aberrant association of messenger RNAs with the mitochondrial ribosome.

Exonuclease 3′ –5′ domain-containing 2 (EXD2) is a mitochondrial ribonuclease. A ribonuclease is a type of nuclease that catalyzes the degradation of RNA into smaller components such as microRNAs. A nuclease is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids. EXD2 is required for mitoribosome integrity and efficient mitochondrial translation.
See: The Excitable Mitochondria by John Hewitt, who brought the article on EXD2 to my attention in his tweets. The link from energy-dependent changes in EXD2 to homeostasis predicts the link from reduced ATP production to the virus-driven degradation of EXD2 to the aberrant associations that link mutations in messenger RNA to all pathology. I suspect that John Hewitt will soon publish an article on the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and enzymes. He is most likely to link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information to all pathology without challenging pseudoscientists and other science journalists to revise their ridiculous claims about mutation-driven evolution. Challenging your peers leads to your elimination from consideration. Your peers cannot rise to the ocassion and meet the challenge, so they must ignore you.
As I finalize this series on enzyme-constrained interethnic diversity, I also offer information from my largely ignored FB posts on the anniversary dates indicated:
January 10, 2017

The scent of eros: mysteries of odor in human sexuality

“This is science at its best, with adventure, ideas, and lots of facts”. — Helen Fisher

“A treasure hunt through history, literature, and scientific data”. — Gina Ogden

On pages 160-162 of “The Scent of Eros” (1995/2002) we linked race and ethnicity to all biodiversity via the same model of biologically-based cause and effect. It is still the only valid model.

What exactly do people think was still being debated about the fact that all organisms must eat to reproduce, or that pheromones control the physiology of reproduction in all living genera?

How could race and ethnicity not be aspects of a valid model of biologically-based cause and effect unless pseudoscientists convinced you to believe in mutation-driven evolution?

January 10, 2016

This serves as a reminder to all sex researchers. Most of them understand nothing about how RNA-mediated sex differences in cell types are linked to sex differences in #behavior by nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions.
They refused to accept the fact that the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and chromosomal rearrangements link the molecular epigenetics of cell type differentiation in all cell types of all individuals of all species from microbes to humans.

Xistential crisis: Discovery shows there’s more to the story in silencing X chromosomes
Xist is widely believed to be both necessary and sufficient for X silencing,” … “We for the first time show that it’s not sufficient, that there have to be other factors, on the X-chromosome itself, that activate Xist and then cooperate with Xist RNA to silence the X-chromosome.
An example of how 20 years of ignorance about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation leads to “NEW” discoveries.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior 1996
Genomic-imprinting is also manifest in specific parts of the X-inactivation region’s related XIST gene. Here male- and female-specific methyl-group patterns participate in X-inactivation in females and also in the preferential inactivation of the paternal X in human placentae of female concepti (Harrison, 1989; Monk, 1995). This process indicates that tissues of the early conceptus can sense and react differentially to epigenetic sexual dimorphisms on the female conceptus’ own two X chromosomes. Furthermore, variations of X-inactivation patterns often account for traits discordance in monozygotic twin females. In other words, they are often found to have nonidentical patterns of X-inactivation, yielding differing expression of noticeable X-linked traits (Machin, 1996).
January 10, 2017

The anniversary of an attack on science.

Odious Christianity
Ray Comfort

Professor PZ Myers hates Christianity. Nor is he a big fan of my good friend, Ken Ham.
In writing about his hatred, PZ unwittingly showed his hand when he said,

“I reject his notion of sin — the idea that there is some kind of divine law against which we can transgress — but humanists do not deny that we can do wrong and we can do harm. We think we should do better, not to appease some vengeful deity, but because it improves our lives and helps make those around us happier and better able to live up to their potential. We certainly do accept that death is inevitable, but not because we are wicked — the wicked often seem to flourish while the good may die young. Are we to measure the virtue of human beings by their longevity? Charles Manson is 82, and surely destined to join the saints in heaven, while every infant death must open a chute directly to hell for its wicked soul.”
His hatred is perfectly in line with the Bible:
“Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be” (Romans 8:7).
PZ is unashamedly godless (a state the Bible refers to as “carnal”), and so his mind is at “enmity” against God. That means he is in a continual state of hostility towards his Creator. That certainly is true. Even though he doesn’t believe that He exists, but he contemptuously hates the very thought of “a god.”
But look at the pinpoint accuracy of the Scriptures:
“…for it [our carnal mind] is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.”
His hatred is directed at the “law of God,”–the moral Law (the Ten Commandments).
PZ is like a criminal who hates the police, not because of who they are individually, but because of what they represent. They stand for the law–that which is right and good, and that is offensive to someone who loves and lives for crime.
PZ’s railings about his loved ones dying is tragic, but peripheral. They are not the main reason why he is angry.
His anger is primarily at God and His Law, because he doesn’t like being told what to do. Like you and I before we came to Christ, he loves his sin, and he who loves the darkness hates the light.
I’m not sure why PZ called Charles Manson “wicked,” when his atheistic worldview doesn’t allow for anyone to be “wicked.”
Or could it simply be that Manson transgressed the moral Law, which says “You shall not kill,” and PZ intuitively knows that, because of his God-given knowledge of right and wrong (see Romans 2:15).
It’s actually heartening to see him using his moral compass. If he would put down his weapons and study how God’s moral compass is infinitely higher, he may rethink his rejection of “The soul who sins, shall die.”
This is because every death is sobering evidence of the truth of that verse.
You can see PZ in action in our movie “Evolution vs God” (over 2 million views) at www.FullyFreeFilms.com
P.S. PZ hates the movie.

January 10, 2017

How Your Toxic Boss Is Hurting Your Mental Health

Get out before the DNA damage is irreparable.

I do not have a boss. But the stress of attempting to interest others in what is known about how biologically-based cause and effect must be linked to interethnic similarities and differences may prevent some further attempts to explain how DNA damage is biophysically constrained in the context of naturally occurring RNA interference and viral latency.
November 27, 2017 See: Damage-induced lncRNAs control the DNA damage response through interaction with DDRNAs at individual double-strand breaks
Reported on November 29, 2017 as: RNA takes over control of DNA break repair

Now, a study shows that following the formation of DNA double-strand breaks, bidirectional transcription events adjacent to the break generate small RNAs that trigger the DNA damage response by local RNA:RNA interactions.

The RNA:RNA interactions are energy-dependent and they link the creation of microRNAs to the creation of enzymes, receptors, and hormones that protect organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and all pathology.  But they are not just RNA:RNA interactions. The interactions among microRNAs and messenger RNA link food energy and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all biodiversity on Earth without the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by biologically uninformed theorists and science journalists such as Ed Yong and Carl Zimmer.

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (3)

See first: Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (2)
Emily Balskus Pins Down the Chemistry and Metabolism of Human Microbiomes
Summary: The chemistry and metabolism of all microbiomes is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled via the physiology of reproduction.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

My comment to The Scientist:

…trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp) dehydratase, a newly discovered member of an abundant family of proteins, produced by gut bacteria, known as the glycyl radical enzymes, helps in metabolizing trans-Hyp, an amino acid that is rare in bacteria but is common in eukaryotes.

The de novo creation of energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA protects the organized genomes of all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which has been linked from mutations to all pathology via the claims Schrodinger made in “What is Life?” (1944).

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

Natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality links the sense of smell in bacteria to the biophysically constrained viral latency that links ecological variation to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to humans via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

Sunlight has since been placed into the context of quantized energy as information, which links our visual perception of mass and energy from the space-time continuum to the concept of the energy-dependent creation of quantum souls.
See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (2016) and From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Dispensing with all pseudoscientific nonsense about evolution (2)

See also: Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk
Reported as: Hundreds of Genomic Regions Linked to Age at Menarche

Age at onset of puberty is affected by a combination of genetic, nutritional, and other environmental factors and that timing, in turn, is associated with risk of cancer later in life.

Who will be next to link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from nutritional epigenetics to other environmental factors and stress-linked pathology in all organized genomes?
They report that the strongest age at menarche (AAM) signal encodes a key repressor of energy-dependent microRNA biogenesis, which links methylation to limits on cell pluripotency.
Other significant genome wide signals were mapped to lysine-specific demethylase genes or to Mendelian pubertal disorder genes such as GNRH1 (178) and KAL1 (378). KAL1 and GnRH link olfaction and pheromones from fertilization to adult sexual behavior.
See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
Stop pretending it takes a team of hundreds of people to determine that all biodiversity on Earth is nutrient energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. All serious scientists know that feedback loops link chirality and autophagy from changes in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of microbes to mammals during their life history transitions.

See also: A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution


Light ‘drives’ adaptation; nothing ‘drives’ evolution (2)

See: Light ‘drives’ adaptation; nothing ‘drives’ evolution

See also: Who rules the waves? – Viruses might just be bit players in the drama of the seas. Then again, they could be major actors

Excerpt (from 1996): 

Most consider viruses to be a legion of cripples, sterilised by ultraviolet radiation and rendered impotent by hosts that are largely immune to their threat. But a few researchers take the opposite view. And if they turn out to be right, viruses could radically alter the balance of life in the oceans, ripping away huge parts of the food web that supports whales, sea birds and the fisheries on which many people rely.

See also: Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin


This is a good point to make. The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…

From 1996: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

Forthcoming, two decades later: New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives

Developments in evolutionary biology and adjacent fields have produced calls for revision of the standard theory of evolution…

My comment: Topics mentioned in the abstracts (my categories):


The physics of organisms

multilevel and reciprocal causation

adaptability could influence the inherited characteristics of an organism’s descendants
phenotypic traits have complementary rather than antagonistic functions
‘second inheritance system’, built on the shoulders of the primary genetic inheritance system
adaptive design at the level of genes, individuals and societies
…niche construction co-directs adaptive evolution
integrated symbioses
‘developmental niche construction’ as a framework to integrate findings from fields ranging from molecular biology to developmental psychology
epigenetic inheritance
the involvement of epigenetic inheritance in adaptive evolutionary change
inherited yet non-genetic adaptation.
somatic inheritance, maternal effects and DNA methylation.
processes that sustain persisting lineages.
understanding how ecological disruptions can stimulate productive, often abrupt, evolutionary transformations

Pseudoscientific nonsense

a distinction between epigenetic and exogenetic inheritance

different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails.
how different mechanisms of inheritance contributes to evolution.
understanding of how important the process has been in shaping the evolution of animal form.
a closely allied distinction between ‘organic’ and ‘cultural’ evolution?
domestication to serve once again as a model system
‘human like’ modes of behaviour (and presumably more biocultural evolution)

See for comparison to everything currently known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry.

A niche for the genome


…the study of phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic and exogenetic inheritance, have not yet demonstrated the need for any revolutionary change in evolutionary thought. For us they highlight the extent to which proximate developmental mechanisms can inform ultimate biology.

My comment: Twenty years after our review of energy-dependent RNA-mediated molecular epigenetics and cell type differentiation, this exemplifies the overwhelming foolishness of theorists who seem to think that not all developmental mechanisms are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction.

See also the discussion attempt at: What does DNA have to do with the Origin of Life ?


From angstroms to ecosystems and entropy

Text with these references to follow. The two submissions should be available within the month. I will announce the availability and add the text with links to the citations at that time.
From hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs to ecosystems
[1] Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system
[2] Ultraviolet Absorption Induces Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in G⋅C Watson–Crick DNA Base Pairs in Solution.
[3] Photonic Maxwell’s Demon
[4] Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism
[5] Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
[6] Re-criticizing RNA-mediated cell evolution: a radical perspective
[7] From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
[8] Widespread Expansion of Protein Interaction Capabilities by Alternative Splicing
[9] Long non-coding RNAs in innate and adaptive immunity
[10]Defective control of pre–messenger RNA splicing in human disease
[11] What is Life?
[12] Conditional iron and pH-dependent activity of a non-enzymatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway
[13]Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
[14] Metabolic Reprogramming with a Long Noncoding RNA
[15] New insights into the hormonal and behavioural correlates of polymorphism in white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis
[16] The metabolic background is a global player in Saccharomyces gene expression epistasis
[17]Dynamics of epigenetic regulation at the single-cell level
[18] A new view of transcriptome complexity and regulation through the lens of local splicing variations
[19] Pan-neuronal imaging in roaming Caenorhabditis elegans
[20] Distinct Circuits for the Formation and Retrieval of an Imprinted Olfactory Memory
[21] System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes
[22] Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
[23] Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction
[24] Cytogenetic approaches for determining ecological stress in aquatic and terrestrial biosystems
[25] Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress
[26] Distinct E-cadherin-based complexes regulate cell behaviour through miRNA processing or Src and p120 catenin activity http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb3227
[27]Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults
RNA-mediated molecular epigenetics and virus-driven entropy
[1] The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences
[2] Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
[3] UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair
[4] Phosphorylation-Mediated Regulation of Alternative Splicing in Cancer
[5] An Epigenetic Signature for Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression
[6] Cyanobacteria use micro-optics to sense light direction
[7] Cryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for betaretroviral intasome function http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16955
[8] Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution
[9] RNA-Mediated Regulation of HMGA1 Function
[10] An expanded sequence context model broadly explains variability in polymorphism levels across the human genome
[11] The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression
[12] miR-30e controls DNA damage-induced stress responses by modulating expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and caspase-3
[13] Redefining part of 300 year-old classification system for grouping members of the animal kingdom
[14] Systematic microRNAome profiling reveals the roles of microRNAs in milk protein metabolism and quality: insights on low-quality forage utilization
[15] Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk
[16] Neuroscience of Early-Life Learning in C. elegans
[17] Differential Odour Coding of Isotopomers in the Honeybee Brain
[18] Breast Milk Sugars Support Infant Gut Health
[19] C. elegans lifespan extension by osmotic stress requires FUdR, base excision repair, FOXO, and sirtuins


Effects on invertebrate GnRH and affects on primate behavior

Introduction: Energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution have again been linked to hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors by the conserved molecular mechanisms we detailed in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. The practical application of those details has been reported in the context of this article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men

Daily Diagnosis is emailed each weekday to members of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).
Information about the Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men was reported in “ASCP Daily Diagnosis” as:
Testosterone Replacement Gel May Provide Some Benefits To Older Men With Low Testosterone, Study Suggests.


The AP (2/17, Tanner):  … finding mostly modest improvement in the sex lives, walking strength and mood of a select group of older men.

NBC News (2/17, Fox, Derenowski, Costello)  …points out that that findings “are expected later from four other related studies, which tested the hormone’s effects on mental function, bone density, heart function and anemia.”

See also the reports from the New York Times (2/18, A17, Kolata, Subscription Publication), Forbes (2/17, Weintraub), Medscape (2/17, Tucker), HealthDay (2/17, Thompson), STAT (2/17, Swetlitz), the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (2/17, Templeton), Reuters (2/17, Emery), the Wall Street Journal (2/17, Beck, Subscription Publication), The Oregonian (2/17, Terry), and the NPR (2/17, Streeter) “Shots” blog.

This is “Big Science” that is not placed into any other context whatsoever. See also, from the New England Journal of Medicine:

On Smell.

The sense of smell links energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to testosterone levels during life history transitions in men.

I should think we might fairly gauge the future of biological science, centuries ahead by estimating the time it will take to reach a complete comprehensive understanding of odor. It may not seem a profound enough problem to dominate all the life sciences, but it contains, piece by piece, all the mysteries” (p. 732).  — Lewis Thomas (as cited in The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality).

My comment: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the link from the sense of smell to testosterone during life history transitions.
See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

For instance, Jakacki, Kelch, Sauder, Lloyd, Hopwood, and Marshall (1982) have shown that prepubertal children secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) and presumably gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a pulsatile manner, well before physical evidence of sexual maturation is apparent. Since the neuroendocrine mechanisms for the control both of gonadal and, in part, of adrenal steroidogenesis are active, if the Gd–H–B model is influenced by social-environmental sensory stimuli before puberty occurs, such stimuli also would be capable of influencing long-term behavior.

Cited in: Testosterone in utero and at birth dictates how stressful experience will affect learning in adulthood

…the absence of testosterone shortly after birth organizes the ability to acquire trace memories in adulthood and dictates its modulation by stressful experience in females. These effects are generally consistent with those of sexual behaviors, which become masculinized by exposure to testosterone in utero and feminized by its absence shortly after birth (3, 9, 33, 34). Our data suggest that sexually dimorphic effects of emotional experience on cognitive behaviors in adulthood are similarly organized by a relatively brief exposure to testosterone during development.

See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005)

Indications that GnRH peptide plays an important role in the control of sexual behaviors suggest that pheromone effects on these behaviors might also involve GnRH neurons.  (p 683)

My comment: Additional findings that support claims about how nutrient energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution are linked from RNA-mediated events to the pheromone-controlled physiology of nematodes and ecological adaptation during life history transitions in humans are included in the reports linked here:
Distinct Circuits for the Formation and Retrieval of an Imprinted Olfactory Memory
System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes
Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity
Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress
The Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)-Like Molecule in Prosobranch Patella caerulea: Potential Biomarker of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Marine Environments
Cytogenetic approaches for determining ecological stress in aquatic and terrestrial biosystems
Summary: The benefits of testosterone therapy for those who are deficient have been placed into a model of biologically-based cause and effect of hormones linked to behavior. The hormones that affect behavior link physics and chemistry to every aspect of metabolic networks and genetic networks that has ever been linked to the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

See for comparison: Mutation-Driven Evolution

… genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world. In this view of evolution there is no need of considering teleological elements, (p. 199).

My comment: The likelihood that anyone  who touts links from constraint-breaking mutations to biodiversity will “… fairly gauge the future of biological science, centuries ahead by estimating the time it will take to reach a complete comprehensive understanding…” can be compared to facts that link “…the future of biological science, centuries ahead…” to what is currently understood about the links from food odors and pheromones to the physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates and invertebrates. The food odors and pheromones link metabolic networks to genetic networks via RNA-mediated events linked to supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy. The organized genomes are exemplified in the morphological phenotypes and the behavioral phenotypes of all living genera.
See for example: The Genetics of Society

For the first time, scientists are investigating the molecules that underlie eusocial behavior at a depth that was previously unimaginable. New, affordable sequencing technologies enable scientists to examine how genes across the entire genome are regulated to generate different caste phenotypes, the roles of DNA methylation and microRNAs in this differential expression, and what proteins are synthesized as a result.

My comment: The molecules that underlie all behavior have already been linked from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution via the role that microRNAs play in RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links alternative splicings of pre-mRNA (the microRNAs) to cell type differentiation in all genera via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, DNA methylation, the creation of adhesion proteins and the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled creation and stability of supercoiled DNA.
See also:  Organizational and activational effects of hormones on insect behavior

Effects of hormones on brain and behavior occur through three mechanisms: (1) behaviors both organized and activated by hormones, (2) behaviors only organized by hormones, and (3) behaviors only activated by hormones (reviewed in Arnold and Breedlove, 1985; Diamond et al., 1996).”

My comment: Although Gene Robinson cited our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review in the article he co-authored with Elekonich, neither of them has since acknowledged the basis for any of their subsequent claims. Gene Robinson has proceeded to tout the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinism at a time when others are trying to eliminate it from any further consideration whatsoever.
See: Molecular evolutionary analyses of insect societies

Our bee molecular evolution study revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism are evolving more rapidly in eusocial relative to noneusocial bee lineages and are evolving most rapidly in highly eusocial lineages (21).

My comment: Molecules do not evolve. Hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution links energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in all vertebrates and invertebrates. Eusocial lineages do not evolve. Organisms and species adapt via the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans via the conserved molecular mechanisms we detailed in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 review. That fact shows why the vision Sir Paul Nurse has for the Crick Institute will be skewed by the facts about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

See: Vision for the Crick Institute

…you can’t force people to work together, and just putting them in the same room doesn’t mean that is going to happen.

My comment: Gene Robinson, and many others, have pitted themselves against those who have been Combating Evolution to Fight Disease and those who have linked angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA.
The vision for the Crick Institute requires cooperation among those who link RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression; RNA-mediated gene silencing, RNA-mediated toxicity, RNA-mediated epigenetic heredity, via nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation to life history transitions in levels of testosterone and behavior via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.
For example, see:
Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults
Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity
In the context of Combating Evolution to Fight Disease, especially age-related diseases that link epigenetic effects on hormones to the affects of hormones on behavior via COMT Val158Met or BDNF Val66Met, if you cannot accept the fact that energy-dependent base pair changes link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to all biodiversity, you should not consider trying to explain top-down causation to a serious scientist.