Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Is meat protein unhealthy? (2)

See also: Microbiome-Grade DNA Extraction Kits

…the thermal and chemical methods effectively lyse the gram-negative organisms and boost their population in the final profile, amplifying the bias.

This suggests that all links from food energy-dependent de novo creation of the pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained bull sperm microRNAome have been misinterpreted in the context of virus-driven fescue toxicosis.

The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

…the miRNA profile of mature ejaculated sperm may in fact have downstream consequences upon embryonic development. The potential for sperm miRNA affecting zygote development has recently been reported in the literature [18] and has interesting implications for the use of sperm miRNA profiles as indicators of potential male fertility.

Fescue toxicosis links the virus-driven creation of enzymes to the degradation of messenger RNA in bull sperm and to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of mutations, which all serious scientists have linked from damage to supercoiled DNA to all pathology in humans and other species.

Eating the meat from other animals that have not ecologically adapted to the virus-driven theft of quantized energy has been linked from the viruses in their genomes to human pathology via the degradation of messenger RNA in bacteria that become archaea and L-forms.

See also: Dobzhansky (1973)

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

See also: The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen

The presence of viruses in semen is probably more widespread than currently appreciated, and the absence of virus in genital secretions should not be assumed for traditionally non–sexually transmitted viruses. The investigation of virus detection and persistence in semen across a range of viruses is useful for clinical and public health reasons, in particular for viruses that lead to high mortality or morbidity rates or to epidemics.

No serious scientist has ever reported a link from the Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor to the evolution of anything except pathology. All serious scientists have, for comparison, linked ecological variation to food energy-dependent  polycombic ecological adaptations via biophysically constrained viral latency in species from microbes to humans.

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation…

See also: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game for ages 10+

 A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Is meat protein unhealthy? (1)

Patterns of plant and animal protein intake are strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality
Reported as: Meat protein is unhealthy, but protein from nuts and seeds is heart smart

In the context of everything known about how the creation of anti-entropic virucidal light must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, watch this ridiculous misrepresentation of the honeybee model organism. Food energy-dependent microRNA-mediated pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency is portrayed as if visual input was most important.

Bee swarms work like giant brains

See instead:

RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry

RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry (2)

Psychophysical Laws of Biology: RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry (3)

Learn how to prevent more school shootings via what is known about how the “Psychophysical Laws” of Biology are linked to food energy-dependent biophysically constrained behaviors via microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation and the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions like COMT Val158Met during the transition from adolescence to adulthood.

Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults (Epub Oct 16 2014)

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Sexual communication signals: New Insights!

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge.Kalevi Kull

New insights in the evolution of sexual communication signals

Abstract excerpt:

Our research focuses on identifying a) the genes underlying sexual signals and responses in both sexes2-4, and b) ecological factors that may cause divergence in sexual communication. Factors that we found to affect sexual communication are closely related species with similar mating signals5, low nutritional quality, (toxic) secondary plant metabolites and pathogens6.

Elizabeth Pennisi reported on this 2017 conference presentation and claimed:

The results “demonstrate the importance of the social environment,” Halfwerk says. “One form does not attract males on its own, only in close proximity of the other form.” That result also parallels what’s been found in humans: that an attractive woman in a crowd of less attractive women also seems to attract more attention. But pinning down exactly why this happens should be much easier in moths than people, she notes. “That’s the nice thing about insects.”

See: Sexy females help ‘Plain Jane’ moths snag their mates

No experimental evidence of biologically-based sexual communication suggests that sex signals evolved. The fine-tuned systems of communication among individuals and species pose an evolutionary dilemma because they are food energy-dependent. Ecological variation must be linked from food energy to biophysically constrained ecological adaptations by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Also, everything known to serious scientists about energy-dependent top-down creation links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from the creation of ATP to the creation of messenger RNA. That fact does not appear to be coincidental.

See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Detailed experimental evidence also links the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology. That fact leaves neo-Darwinian theorists and “Big Bang” cosmologists without any acceptable theory of anything or any theory of everything.

See for comparison: A New Physics Theory of Life and Jeremy England’s idea that “You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant.” 

Theorists and philosophers cannot link energy as information or “big bang” cosmology to biodiversity without the creation of energy. Most of them ignore the fact that they do not know where the energy in a hydrogen atom came from.

Without the de novo creation of energy, they cannot link hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution from microRNA flanking sequences to SNPs, and they cannot link food energy as information to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes. For comparison, all serious scientists have linked what is known about the food energy-dependent fixation of amino acid substitutions to the structure and function of supercoiled DNA, and all serious scientists have linked energy-dependent RNA-mediated cause and effect to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

That fact helps to explain why Richard Feynman referred to some theoretical physicists as examples of human idiocy.

See: Food energy

That suggests Elizabeth Pennisi is a biologically uninformed. She reported: “That’s the nice thing about insects.” If she was not a biologically uninformed science idiot, she would have linked food energy to the physiology of reproduction in all invertebrates and vertebrates. That is how the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction is linked from ecological variation to all biodiversity via what is known to all serious scientists about ecological adaptation.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction and Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

For comparison to the science reporting by Elizabeth Pennisi,  J.A. Parker is the only person besides me, who has reported on this 2017 conference presentation:

See also: All in the (bigger) family by Elizabeth Pennisi with my comment:

The 2015 Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (SICB) presenters may not recognize how much progress has been made since the 2013 ecological epigenetics symposium. For example, since then authors claimed “…ctenophore neural systems, and possibly muscle specification, evolved independently from those in other animals.” http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13400

Six months later, other authors traced signaling factors found in vertebrates to the origin of nerve cell centralization via the diffuse nerve net of animals like the sea anemone. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6536 That fact suggests ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations in morphological and behavioral phenotypes via signaling protein concentrations that differentiate various cell types in body axes and the central nervous system.

Links across species from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in organized genomes appear to have their origins in the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated protein folding. Two weeks after the publication that refuted ideas about independently evolved neural systems or muscle specification — and perhaps refuted the independent evolution of anything else, SICB presenters linked crustaceans to insects.

Apparently, they’ve learned that the same set of microRNAs controls expression of the genes for rate-limiting enzymes that control the hormone production of different hormones in insects and crustaceans.

Why were they left with any questions about how crustaceans and insects could all be part of one big family? They linked RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to what we described in our section on molecular epigenetics in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/biblio/articles/1961to1999/1996-from-fertilization.html

See also: Sex differences in microRNA-mRNA networks: examination of novel epigenetic programming mechanisms in the sexually dimorphic neonatal hypothalamus

Integrating miRNAs and their broad actions on gene function into our conceptualization of the factors directing sexual differentiation of the brain could be a highly informative next step in efforts to understand the complexities behind these processes.

They linked sex differences in microRNAs to the sexual differentiation of all cell types in all living genera that sexually reproduce via microRNA-mRNA networks.
See also: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences

…miRNAs can be employed as both qualitative [9] and quantitative markers, with the latter demonstrated clearly here. Our investigation demonstrates the utility of miRNA sequences as classical phylogenetic markers, and shows this usage is robust to different algorithms of phylogenetic analysis and the analysis of fast-evolving lineages. Such a method provides novel characters for assessing phylogenetic relationships that will be of use in a range of contexts for resolving branches across the tree of life.

See also: Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction

Future work on O. vulgaris olfaction must also consider how animals acquire the odours detected by the olfactory organ and what kind of odour the olfactory organ perceives. The OL acting as control centre may be target organ for metabolic hormones such as leptin like and insulin like peptides, and olfactory organ could exert regulatory action on the OL via epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on gene expression (Kohl, 2013; Elekonich and Robinson, 2000).

Kohl (2013) is: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (June 14, 2013)

…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance (Breen, Kemena, Vlasov, Notredame, & Kondrashov, ; Duvarci, Nader, & LeDoux, ; Griggs et al., ; Monahan & Lomvardas, ) in adaptive evolution will certainly be discussed in published works that will follow.

Elekonich and Robinson (2000) cited:  From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
At the time of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review, microRNAs were called pre-mRNAs. See our section on molecular epigenetics:

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

Social odors are still called pheromones and we linked the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all biophysically constrained biodiversity on Earth via sex differences in microRNAs (pre-mRNAs).
The sex differences in microRNAs will soon be linked to sex differences in healthy longevity and to sex differences in diseases in the context of the cell biology game: “Cytosis.” Next, the game “Subatomic” will teach others how to build an atom.
The fact that this invited review linked energy-dependent changes in atoms to ecosystems may still go unnoticed, since the invited review was returned without review.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
But, for God’s sake, see for comparison: 7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman:

“Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.”

Do not ignore the fact that Jay R. Feierman has no understanding of how ecological variation must be linked to energy-dependent ecological adaptation via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
See also: December 5, 2016

[MODERATOR NOTE: I’m not going to post more from Kohl until he answers the very direct and simple question posed to him by anon, which is whether he (Kohl) believes that RNA splicing can change DNA.]

What I believe about RNA splicing is irrelevant unless someone else links the creation of energy to ATP and the creation of RNA outside the context of energy-dependent alternative splicings of pre-mRNA and the link from energy to the creation of the pre-mRNAs and to energy-dependent biophysical constraints on supercoiled DNA in all living genera.

As Heyn points out, “we still do not fully understand the mechanisms that drive epigenetic variation in populations.”

Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links RNA-directed DNA methylation to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. That fact seems to be missing from this representation of a failed paradigm (neo-Darwinian evolution).
Claims that facts about natural selection and epigenetic variation in populations are not fully understood can be viewed in the context of reports by those who understand the facts about Darwin’s “conditions of life.” They are energy-dependent and RNA-mediated
See for example: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition and Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
It has become obvious to all serious scientists that the sense of smell in bacteria must be linked from mRNA stability to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of natural selection across the time-space continuum via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. The complexity of that fact may not be understood by biologically uninformed theorists, but no theorist should claim that the mechanisms of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained cell type differentiation are not understood by all serious scientists.
Re: …a strong link between population-specific DNA methylation, mRNA levels, and genotypes.
See also: Methylation Variation Documented Between Human Populations

“Our analysis of five worldwide populations revealed a strong correspondence between population-specific DNA methylation, [messenger RNA] levels, and genotypes,” the authors wrote. “The correlation with genetic divergence was stronger for DNA methylation, and, consistent with this, our results suggest stronger local genetic control of population-specific DNA methylation levels than of mRNA expression levels.”

The strong link and/or strong correspondence between food energy-dependent DNA methylation, messenger RNA levels and genotypes is biophysically constained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all livng genera. See for example: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle appear to provide the free energy for nuclear ATP synthesis and the food-energy-depenent biosynthesis of messenger RNA. If so, all pathology is caused by the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations but not from ecological variation to ecological adaptations.
See also: Back to Basics: Next-generation sequencing methods and applications (with my emphasis)

…another common NGS application (although one currently more of a research application than a front-line clinical tool) is to examine the transcriptome of a sample—that is, the identity and relative abundance of mRNA transcripts present. Sometimes referred to as “exome sequencing,” this approach is efficient in that it applies resources only to that small portion of the genome which is functionally expressed. Of course, not all significant genetic aberrations occur within coding regions; but by observing levels (or even presence/absence) of transcripts in comparison to reference “normal” conditions, important mutations in non-coding regions such as gene promoters or splice site regulators can be inferred. When such findings are plausibly related to a disease condition, more directed studies to confirm the root cause can then be undertaken as or if needed.

See also: microRNA “exome sequencing Items: 1 to 20 of 55 There is no need to infer that splice site regulators are not food energy-dependent and yet that is what biologically uninformed neo-Darwinian theorists have consistently done with their claims about Mutation-driven evolution. For comparison, all serious scientists are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.
See also: Global Epigenomic Reconfiguration During Mammalian Brain Development July 4, 2013

DNA methylation is implicated in mammalian brain development and plasticity underlying learning and memory. We report the genome-wide composition, patterning, cell specificity, and dynamics of DNA methylation at single-base resolution in human and mouse frontal cortex throughout their lifespan. Widespread methylome reconfiguration occurs during fetal to young adult development, coincident with synaptogenesis. During this period, highly conserved non-CG methylation (mCH) accumulates in neurons, but not glia, to become the dominant form of methylation in the human neuronal genome. Moreover, we found an mCH signature that identifies genes escaping X-chromosome inactivation. Finally, whole-genome single-base resolution 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) maps revealed that hmC marks fetal brain cell genomes at putative regulatory regions that are CG-demethylated and activated in the adult brain, and that CG demethylation at these hmC-poised loci depends on Tet2 activity.

See also: Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 genomes are ancient, intact and potentially able to reactivate from telomeres, which was reported as: “Study of inherited herpes virus finds links to ancient humans” August 30, 2017

We used molecular dating methods to compare, for example, the inherited HHV-6B genomes in five individuals from Sardinia, Orkney and England, and estimated that the most recent common ancestor with the inherited HHV-6B existed 24,500 ±10,600 years ago.

The molecular dating methods are evaluated outside the context of what is known about energy-dependent pheromone-controlled feedback loops, which have been linked from the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum. But, rather than repeat myself, I will simple support my claims with a link to: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants, which was reported in January, 2013, as: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome. The changes can be place into the context of exome sequencing, but not mutation-driven evolution.
The recent origin of most human protein-coding variants can be linked from food energy-dependent changes in exomes that are biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera. The recent origin of the variant can also be linked from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology.

Of 1.15 million single-nucleotide variants found among more than 15,000 protein-encoding genes, 73% in arose the past 5,000 years, the researchers report. 164,688 of the variants — roughly 14% — were potentially harmful, and of those, 86% arose in the past 5,000 years.

See also: Whole-Exome Sequencing Reveals a Rapid Change in the Frequency of Rare Functional Variants in a Founding Population of Humans (2013)
I repeat:

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge.Kalevi Kull
Cytosis

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (1)

Summary: The hitchhiking, the epistasis, and the dynamics of adapting populations are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained in the context of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to all pathology in all living genera.

An upper limit on the functional fraction of the human genome

For the human population to maintain a constant size from generation to generation, an increase in fertility must compensate for the reduction in the mean fitness of the population caused, among others, by deleterious mutations. The required increase in fertility due to this mutational load depends on the number of sites in the genome that are functional, the mutation rate, and the fraction of deleterious mutations among all mutations in functional regions. These dependencies and the fact that there exists a maximum tolerable replacement level fertility can be used to put an upper limit on the fraction of the human genome that can be functional. Mutational load considerations lead to the conclusion that the functional fraction within the human genome cannot exceed 25%, and is probably considerably lower.

Reported as: Most of Human Genome Nonfunctional: Study

If only a small bit of the genome is functional, then the odds of a mutation taking out an important sequence are smaller, and therefore fertility rates can be lower.

That conclusion makes sense in the context of natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality, which biophysically constrains RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry.  Feedback loops link the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
Simply put, the structure of functional DNA is food energy-dependent because what organisms eat prevents virus-driven entropy of their organized genomes in the context of reproduction.

I would like to think that most knowledgeable biologists who properly appreciate evolutionary theory and genomic diversity are well aware of the many problems with ENCODE’s claim.

Anyone who is not aware of the problems should search PubMed for the term “microRNA” before release of the cell biology game “Cytosis” forces them to learn what anyone more than ten years old can learn from playing the game.
Energy-dependent viral latency is biophysically constrained in organized genomes. Nutrient stress and social stress break the constraints and the stress-linked degradation of messenger RNA links viruses to all pathology.
All life on Earth is energy-dependent, which means that the energy must be biophysically “trapped” at least twice.
See also: Gamma-ray telescopes reveal a high-energy trap in our galaxy’s center

…suggests the center of our Milky Way contains a “trap” that concentrates some of the highest-energy cosmic rays, among the fastest particles in the galaxy.

“Our results suggest that most of the cosmic rays populating the innermost region of our galaxy, and especially the most energetic ones, are produced in active regions beyond the galactic center and later slowed there through interactions with gas clouds…”

This appears to be another example of how ultraviolet light constrains the formation of new galaxies. Constraints on energy might be linked to quantum entanglement, which is something that theoretical physicists have not linked from quantum physics to quantum souls.
Should theoretical physicists be asked to include this new information in their theories so that their theories could be used to design experiments that link facts about sunlight as quantized energy to all energy dependent biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction?
Should theorists be asked about the facts included in these published works?
See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

See also: Universe’s ultraviolet background could provide clues about missing galaxies

Simulations show that there should be more small galaxies in the Universe, but UV radiation essentially stopped them from developing by depriving them of the gas they need to form stars.

See also: World’s brightest laser sparks new behavior in light

The claim of new behavior linked from the light of a billion suns begins to make more sense. Now, a high energy trap links the diffuse glow of gamma rays reaching nearly 50 trillion electron volts can be compared to gamma-ray energies and the energy of visible light, which ranges from about 2 to 3 electron volts.

I am happy that we already presciently linked the differences in constrained energy from “…a change in the electron, which abandoned its usual up-and-down motion in favor of a figure-8 flight pattern.”

A rendering of how changes in an electron’s motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception and this two-part video interview:
Quantized Energy Links Olfaction from Angstroms to Ecosystems Part 1
Quantized Energy Links Olfaction from Angstroms to Ecosystems Part 2

In the context of the solar analemma, Mobius strip, and the symbol for infinity, the report on the figure-8 “flight pattern” of electrons is consistent with representations of how the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight is linked under ‘normal’ conditions to the collective energy of all scattered photons. That collective energy links energy as information to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in the context of how quantum physics must be linked to quantum souls.

See also: Probabilistic epigenesis and A probabilistic classifier for olfactory receptor pseudogenes.

Everything known to serious scientists about the energy-dependent creation of receptors links the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum via energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance

.For comparison see: Hitchhiking and epistasis give rise to cohort dynamics in adapting populations

Beneficial mutations are the driving force of adaptive evolution.

There is no such thing as a beneficial mutation. The virus-driven theft of quantized information is linked to increased virulence of viruses via a single amino acid substitution in the virus. The link from sunlight to food energy is the link to all ecological adaptations.

My comment: Reported on July 18, 2017 as Large-scale study of adaptation in yeast could help explain the evolution of cancer

See for comparison our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of food energy-dependent RNA-mediated ecological adaptations that link sexual differentiation in yeasts to all biodiversity in all living genera in the context of our section on molecular epigenetics.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

The hitchhiking, the epistasis, and the dynamics of adapting populations are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained in the context of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to all pathology in all living genera.

See also: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

I used the term “adaptive evolution” instead of ecological adaptation to avoid problems with peer-review if the reviewers recognized that my review was a refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense.

Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

MicroRNAs GnRH and the failure of sex research

Summary: “The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression” accurately represents what is known about food energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from soil microbes to humans. MicroRNAs are not new players in the hypothalamic control of fertility and the effects of food odors and pheromones on microRNAs link energy-dependent changes in hormones to behavior. That fact was detailed two decades ago in our Hormones and Behavior review.

Now see: [MicroRNAs: new players in the hypothalamic control of fertility]

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Discovered more than 15 years ago, their functions start to be unraveled. Increasing evidence points to an important functional role of microRNAs in brain development. In particular, miRNAs have recently been established to play a vital role in the mechanisms underlying the infantile rise in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) production by neurons in the hypothalamus, a phenomenon necessary for the onset of puberty in mammals.

The anti-entropic virucidal energy of ultraviolet light links the de novo creation of of microRNAs from flanking sequences that biophysically constrain all biodiversity by protecting the organized genomes of all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.

See: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

After scanning the article that accurately represents what is known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from soil microbes to humans, see this pseudoscientific nonsense for comparison:

Prenatal Influences on Human Sexual Orientation: Expectations versus Data. Breedlove SM. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0904-2.

Human Sexual Orientation: The Importance of Evidentiary Convergence. Balthazart J, Court L. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 12. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0997-2.

A Bird’s Eye View. Adkins-Regan E. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0998-1

Proceed with Caution: Interpreting Evidence for Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation. LeVay S. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 8. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0996-3

On Possible Hormonal Mechanisms Affecting Sexual Orientation. McFadden D. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 5. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0995-4

Reconsidering Prenatal Hormonal Influences on Human Sexual Orientation: Lessons from Animal Research. Baum MJ, Bakker J. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0994-5

Each published work represents the failure of the sex researchers to link energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all biodiversity via the section on molecular epigenetics from our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

In our section on molecular epigenetics, we linked the quantized energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs from fertilization to adult sexual behavior via this claim.

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating [quantized energy-dependent] alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

The alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA are quantized energy-dependent and they link microRNA flanking sequences to all biodiversity via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The hydrogen-atom transfer was place into the context of the biophysically constrained physiology of reproduction and the role of microRNAs in this published work:

The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences

Their relatively slow evolution [3] also means that they can easily be identified in de novo assemblies of genomes.

Genomes do not automagically assemble themselves. Placing the energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs into the context of the speed of evolution is a horrid error in logic that extends across all disciplines, which is the only way it can continue to be placed into the pseudoscientific claims of sexuality researchers.

See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. GnRH neurons appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions. These results may reflect a strategy wherein GnRH neurons can modify diverse functions in order to coordinate the internal state of the animal and its behavior with reproduction in order to optimize reproductive success.

See for comparison:  Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.

If you take any time at all to review the published works of sex researchers, you will learn why Feynman referred to all social scientists as pseudoscientists.

See also:

Richard Feynman was a Nobel prize winning Theoretical Physicist who popularized physics with his entertaining lecture style. This snippet is taken from one of his lectures in the series “The character of Physical Law” where he complains about all the different units that are used to measure the single concept of Energy.

The human sexualilty researchers whose works were recently published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior represent the worst of pseudoscience. They skip past the facts about food energy and pheromones and link behavior to anything except the role that microRNAs (pre-mRNAs) play in energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which links quantized energy from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the sense of smell in bacteria.
Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

…the signaling and inactive states differ only very slightly at the nitrate-binding site – by 0.5-1 angstroms, which is approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself (1 angstrom is 10-10 meters). However, when this ion binds to the sensor, it causes huge changes in the protein: The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.

See also this: Animation of a particle where the Helicity matches the Chirality.
This appears to be a match made in Heaven so far as young earth creationists are concerned. It links the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic energy to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in the context of what is known about autophagy (Yoshinhori Ohsumi) and chromosomal inheritance (Thomas Hunt Morgan).
But now, all the works of Nobel Laureates can be placed into the context of works by people like Lukin MD
See for example: Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons and Lukin MD microRNA no entries found, for comparison
People like Lukin are not going to link microRNA-mediated cause and effect from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all biodiversity on Earth via food energy and the pheromone-controlled the physiology of reproduction and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. They are like the biologically uninformed sex researchers who have failed to make sense of anything known to serious scientists.
If symmetry protects collisions between strongly interacting photons, the virus-driven theft of quantized energy clearly can be linked to the assymetry manifested it in conditions where the degradation of messenger RNA can clearly be linked to all pathology via the sense of smell.
See Hormonal correlates of women’s mid-cycle preference for the scent of symmetry

When women are fertile in their cycles, in comparison with when they are in the luteal phase, they are more attracted to masculine facial features (Johnston, Hagel, Franklin, Fink, & Grammer, 2001; Penton-Voak & Perret, 2001; Penton-Voak et al., 1999), darker facial skin color (Frost, 1994), lower voice pitch (Feinberg et al., 2006; Puts, 2005), masculine body odor (Grammer, 1993), the scent of men who are socially dominant (Havlicek, Roberts, & Flegr, 2005), the scent of men displaying developmental stability/bilateral symmetry (Gangestad & Thornhill, 1998a; Rikowski & Grammer, 1999; Thornhill & Gangestad,1999; Thornhill et al. 2003), masculine (or dominant) behavioral displays (Gangestad, Garver-Apgar, Simpson, & Cousins, 2007; Gangestad, Simpson, Cousins, Garver-Apgar, & Christensen, 2004; Gangestad, Thornhill, & Garver-Apgar, 2008), masculine or muscular bodies (Gangestad et al., 2007; Little, Jones, & Burriss, 2007) and creative men (Haselton & Miller, 2006; see Thornhill & Gangestad, in press, for a critical review of these and other cycle effects). Substantial evidence indicates that these shifts are specific to women’s preferences for men evaluated as sex partners and not to their preferences for men as long-term, investing mates (e.g., Gangestad et al.,2004, 2007; Haselton & Miller, 2006; Penton-Voak et al., 1999; Puts, 2005).

All these preferences can be framed in the context of what is known about the sense of smell and the substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapeptide. One substitution stabilizes the organized genomes of all vertebrates by preventing nearly all the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which has been linked to all pathology in all living genera.
See: Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor

It is possible that GnRH has an early origin in life history as a regulator of reproduction, since yeast α mating factor has 80% amino acid homology with mammalian GnRH and stimulates gonadotropin release from the mammalian pituitary (Loumaye et al., 1982; King and Millar, 1995). There is a question whether the structure of the GnRHs and their receptors in invertebrates conserved their structure during evolution in a sufficient degree to support the homology with the structure of GnRHs and their receptors in vertebrates.

There is no longer any question about the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera. The mechanisms are light energy-dependent in the context of food energy and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
When will all researchers learn to search PubMed for more information about the role of microRNAs before continuing to tout their pseudoscientific nonsense? What do serious scientists say, for comparison?
See: MicroRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 61842
For example: Computational identification of mutually homologous Zika virus miRNAs that target microcephaly genes.

Conclusions We suggest that following infection of fetal neurons ZIKV may modulate the action of various miRNAs, and miR-1304 in particular, resulting in microcephaly.

In reality, they suggest that all theorists are examples of human idiocy, which is the source of all virus-driven pathology.
 
 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Energy-dependent epigenetic translation to mRNA stability (5)

Energy-dependent epigenetic translation to mRNA stability (4)
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans….

See also: The Supraspliceosome – A Multi-Task Machine for Regulated Pre-mRNA Processing in the Cell Nucleus
Abstract conclusion:

…changes in these regulatory processing activities are associated with human disease and cancer. These findings emphasize the supraspliceosome as a multi-task master regulator of pre-mRNA processing in the cell nucleus.

Excerpt:

…the initiator-tRNA species proposed to participate in SOS reside in the cell nucleus, are found associated with supraspliceosomes (Table 2c), and appear not to be charged with an amino acid [87].

Energy-dependent regulation of the supraspliceosome and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions is charge-regulated and the change in the charge must be linked to fixation of the amino acid substitution in the organized genomes of all living genera before energy can be linked to biologically-based cause and effect via what is known to all serious scientists about how the physiology of reproduction must be linked to biodiversity.
The changes in the supraspiceosome must then be linked from chromosomal rearrangements to morphological and behavioral diversity.
See also: New study helps solve a great mystery in the organization of our DNA, which is a report on this peer-reviewed published work: Targeted Degradation of CTCF Decouples Local Insulation of Chromosome Domains from Genomic Compartmentalization

Beyond defining the functions of CTCF in chromosome folding, these results provide new fundamental insights into the rules governing mammalian genome organization.

My summary: The rules integrate what is known about energy-dependent adenosine to inosine RNA editing. See: Divergent prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidine and 8-oxo-purine ribonucleotides
Prebiotic synthesis starts with the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy.
See: Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism
RNA biosynthesis is energy-dependent and an endogenous substrate appears to be the link from sunlight to protometabolism. By starting from protometabolism, it is easy to link the energy from the innate immune system to polycombic ecological adaptations in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction.
See also: Polycomb Regulates Mesoderm Cell Fate-Specification in Embryonic Stem Cells through Activation and Repression Mechanisms

little is known about the mechanistic underpinnings of how differently composed Polycomb complexes instruct and maintain cell fate. Here we find that Mel18, also known as Pcgf2 and one of six Pcgf paralogs, uniquely regulates PRC1 to specify mesoderm cell fate in embryonic stem cells. Mechanistically, Mel18 functions as a classical Polycomb protein during early cardiac mesoderm differentiation by repressing pluripotency, lineage specification, late cardiac differentiation, and negative regulators of the BMP pathway. However, Mel18 also positively regulates expression of key mesoderm transcription factors, revealing an unexpected function of Mel18 in gene activation during cardiac differentiation. Taken together, our findings reveal that Mel18 is required to specify PRC1 function in both a context- and stage-specific manner.

The context- and stage-specific links from polycombic ecological adaptation are nutrient energy-dependent and the regulation of polycombic ecological adaptations is biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See: Polycombic ecological adaptation as a science, not a theory
See also: Polycombic ecological adaptation as a science, not a theory (2)
See also: Search Results for “Polycombic ecological adaptation
For contrast, see: Is inference the best way to explain the origin of consciousness?

This conversation is connected to: Consciousness is not a thing, but a process of inference

My comments:

  1. Excerpt: “On this view, a loss of consciousness occurs whenever our models lose their ‘thickness’ and become as ‘thin’ as a virus’s.”

Consciousness is energy dependent and biophysically constrained by the ability of organisms to find food and reproduce. Consciousness is manifested as increasing organismal complexity in the context of links from quantum consciousness to quantum souls.

The fact that it took only one journalist to expose all the others who have not asked the right questions about consciousness so that the questions could be answered in the context of what is known to all serious scientists about virus-driven energy theft and all pathology is revealed here, and in the first interview from the week before.

Superbugs, Bacteriophages and Phage Therapy: An Interview with James Kohl

2. I just placed the essay on “Consciousness” into the context of “snake centric” evolution after scanning two published works by the author [Friston, Karl J.]

1) Top-Down Control of Visual Responses to Fear by the Amygdala http://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/44/17435.abstract

2) Bayesian inferences about the self (and others): A review http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810014000105

See also: “Isbell calls these findings “the first neuroscientific support” for her snake-centric evolutionary theory.” excerpted from http://news.sciencemag.org/evolution/2013/10/did-snakes-help-build-primate-brain

For comparison see:

“Science is the belief in the ignorance of experts” — Richard Feynman

Feynman supported the efforts of those who laugh at ‘experts,’ especially when the experts are not among the serious scientists who were forced to link ecological variation to energy-dependent ecological adaptation in the context of what is now known about how to link food energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via feedback loops and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

In “The Pleasure of Finding Things Out,” (see pages 124 and 125 for a summary) Richard Feynman presciently predicted that the ability to see interactions at the level of atomic energy would link quantized energy from sunlight to photosynthesis and pattern recognition by biologists, who would then link quantum physics from chemistry to the growth and movement of all organisms on Earth.
See also:

This comment was posted to my FB group on April 17, 2017
 

1) The findings reveal similarities and differences with a recently published report on the IP3R using a completely different method called cryo-electron microscopy.

2) The team identified an amino acid sequence in the leaflet that is conserved in parasites, suggesting structural insights that may assist in drug discovery for these devastating conditions.

By identifying the amino acid sequence, they inadvertently linked natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to all biodiversity via the biophysically constrained physiology of reproduction in the context of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution.

See also Cryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for betaretroviral intasome function as cited in:The Origin of Information: How to Solve It

Search Results for “hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs”

See also: Energy-dependent epigenetic translation to mRNA stability (5)
 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution (sequel)

See: Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution
See also: Gate-controlled conductance switching in DNA

Conclusion:

Our work demonstrates one can introduce an active control to DNA conductance by modifying a base with a redox group, and switch the DNA conductance reversibly between two levels by oxidizing or reducing the redox group with an EC gate. This strategy could be implemented in more sophisticated DNA nanostructures for active device building blocks. As the DNA conductance is an indicator of the molecule in the reduction or oxidation state, it is possible to study redox reaction kinetics at the single-molecule level by monitoring the DNA conductance.

Reported as: Switched-on DNA: Sparking nano-electronic applications

…the engineered DNA provides a nice tool to examine redox reaction kinetics, and thermodynamics the single molecule level…

This means they can examine virus-driven energy theft in the context of redox reaction kinetics and thermodynamics at the single molecule level, which links nutrient energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Simply put, they can link virus-driven energy theft from mutations to all pathology in species from archaea to modern humans.
See for comparison: Actor Steven Kearney reads excerpts from Greg Bear‘s 1985 novel Blood Music.

The virus is made up of tiny biological computers called “noocytes,” where were intended to improve the human body — giving it routine maintenance and maximizing human potential. Instead, it wiped out most of North America.

See also: Donald Trump’s abortion funding ban condemned by Bill Gates

“The US is the number one donor in the work that we do. Government aid can’t be replaced by philanthropy,” the 61-year-old told the Guardian.

Under the order, which is also known as the Mexico City Policy after it was first unveiled at a UN conference there in 1984, no government funding for family planning services can be given to clinics or groups outside the US that offer abortion or counselling services.

Why is Bill Gates condemning any of President Trump’s foreign policies before the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation stops funding research that is irrelevant to prevention of the viral apocalypse. Does Bill Gates decide who gets the vaccine and who doesn’t at the time the apocalypse begins, or will other billionaires like George Soros dictate all foreign policies? Who are you going to trust with the lives of your loved ones?

See also: Leakers beware: Trump has utterly defeated the disloyal coteries of the US intelligence community with my emphasis

The Trump administration exposed the false flag terrorism in the media.

Donald Trump posed as a hit man. He made sure that the leakers in the IC knew that their actions were illegal. He WARNED them. Then he launched his sting.

Donald Trump gave a press conference in which he admitted to the sting. He said that the leaks are real, but the news is fake.

It was his tactic, and he had to expose how he used it. That exemplifies Trump’s brilliance. Any intelligent disloyal Democrat from the intelligence community should have seen it coming. That suggests none of them are intelligent adversaries.
The biased media reporting on the press conference attests to lack of intelligence among the media representatives who reported the claims of Trump’s ignorant adversaries. The media representatives continue to look more foolish every time they speak out against the President of the United States.
The media representatives won’t be charged with any crimes. How many disloyal Democrats from the intelligence community will be prosecuted for treason?
How will President Trump deal with disloyal billionaires and others who waste his time attempting to influence the people of the United States and cause them to challenge him on topics they know nothing about?
Who will be the next billionaire to inadvertently refute theistic evolution by linking what is known about nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity and linking virus-driven energy theft to all pathology?
Will Mark Zuckerberg eliminate the false flag terrorist groups from Facebook?
Will Paul Allen stop funding brain research that does not link the speed of light on contact with water to all energy-dependent cell type differentiation in all living genera via biophotonics and optogenetics?
See also: Billionaires say they’ll end disease. Evolution suggests otherwise

Darwin introduced a viewpoint that was radically unsettling: we don’t progress to a more perfect form, but adapt to local environments. If humans are machines, then we can simply repair the broken parts. But if there is something more fundamental to the crisis of life than mere mechanisms of biology, then risk, and an element of danger, will always be with us.

Humans are not machines. Bill Gates probably knows that. And he probably knows that theistic evolution is the threat that can now be placed into the context of Non-theistic evolution

The major criticism of theistic evolution by non-theistic evolutionists focuses on its essential belief in a supernatural creator. These critics argue that by the application of Occam’s razor, sufficient explanation of the phenomena of evolution is provided by natural processes (in particular, natural selection), and the intervention or direction of a supernatural entity is not required.[42] Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins considers theistic evolution a superfluous attempt to “smuggle God in by the back door”.[43]

God doesn’t need to be smuggled in. He’s always been with those who believe. Believers know that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality occurs in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. The physiology of energy-dependent reproduction links natural processes to fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA that differentiate the cell types of all living genera.

Supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus driven energy theft, which is linked to all pathology by mutations. Theistic evolutionists may continue to claim that they believe in mutation-driven evolution, but that’s because they known nothing about energy-dependent top-down causation.

Ask Bill Gates or a theistic evolutionist where the energy comes from, and see for comparison.

Charge-altering releasable transporters (CARTs) for the delivery and release of mRNA in living animals

CARTs are structurally unique and operate through an unprecedented mechanism, serving initially as oligo(alpha-amino ester) cations that complex, protect, and deliver mRNA and then change physical properties through a degradative, charge-neutralizing intramolecular rearrangement, leading to intracellular release of functional mRNA and highly efficient protein translation.

Reported as: A new way Forward for Gene Therapy

Sickle-cell disease is caused by a mutation that links the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of virus-driven energy theft to failed nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair. Hemoglobin S is a naturally occurring hemoglobin variant — one of more than 1200 other variants. The variants link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the cell types of populations of ecologically adapted humans. Clearly, their lineages adapted to ecological variation in the parts of the world where they were raised. Researchers have delivered nutrient energy-dependent messenger RNA (mRNA) into cells that use the mRNA to make proteins. What’s missing from this report on gene therapy are facts about how nutrient energy-dependent viral latency must be linked to healthy longevity via energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance linked to amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA, or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
I continue to encourage comments from those who are not Combating Evolution to Fight Disease, especially if they are willing to tell others what they like about virus-driven energy theft and all pathology. Now that Bill Gates has clearly stated that virus-driven energy theft is not likely to be a good thing for humanity, perhaps he will join the serious scientists and/or help to fund their works.
See for example: The 2000 T. H. Morgan Medal Essay: H. J. Muller and the Nature of the Gene and works published by Ruth Ann Luna.
For example,  The Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis: What Role Does It Play in Autism Spectrum Disorder? and her presentation from February 22, 2017:
The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis: Linking Gastrointestinal and Neurobehavioral Processes in Autism Spectrum Disorder
She graciously answered these three questions:
Q: Is the gut microbiome the most likely link from nutrient energy-dependent metabolic networks to genetic networks and Precision Medicine via the National Microbiome Initiative?

Ruth Ann Luna PhD, MB (ASCP) CM

It’s certainly a key player in the crosstalk, but there’s still much to uncover about these pathways.

Q: Have you placed the 2016 publication of “Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition” into the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in your works?

Ruth Ann Luna PhD, MB (ASCP) CM

No we have not. We are working from functional gut microbiome up the gut-brain axis at this point and hoping to weave in as many other factors as possible.

Q: Who else is addressing the bidirectional communication besides your group?
Ruth Ann Luna PhD, MB (ASCP) CM

There are many other groups evaluating the gut-brain connection in general, but not necessarily exclusive to ASD. I’d suggest a quick search in Pubmed for the latest groups involved in this area.

See: Search Results for “autism” and Search results for “autism microrna”
Her expressed intent to “weave in other factors that already are known to me and to Teresa Binstock inspired me to perform this search for the terms autism and microRNA
See for example from February 17, 2017: Regulation of mRNA splicing by MeCP2 via epigenetic modifications in the brain
Conclusion:

Our analysis thus indicated that MeCP2-mediated alternative splicing might influence neuronal functions via two different strategies: one is to regulate protein diversity by coding exons, and another is to regulate protein expression by non-coding exons. Our studies not only systematically explore the mechanisms underlying MeCP2-mediated alternative splicing, but also provide insights into the roles of MeCP2-mediated alternative splicing, which could influence both protein diversity and protein expression level in neurons.

Our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review explored the molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated alternative splicings and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry in the context of the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See our molecular epigenetics section in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

If my co-authors and I had been funded to link what was known about biologically-based cell type differentiation in all species to their origins and from ecological variation to ecological adaptations in all living genera, you would not need to ask whether or not some or all of your loved ones will survive the viral apocalypse.
Nutrient energy-dependent sexual differentiation in yeasts at the advent of sexual reproduction has been linked to all cell type differentiation in all individuals of all species via the conserved molecular mechanisms of pheromone-controlled reproduction that we began to detail two decades ago.
See also: Possible sexually dimorphic role of miRNA and other sncRNA in ASD brain

Our findings of sexual dimorphism in sncRNA levels underscore the importance of considering sex, in addition to age, when interpreting molecular findings on ASD brain.

The interpretation of molecular findings on ASD brain can be placed into the context of virus-driven energy theft and all pathology via the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika virus-damaged DNA in humans. For comparison see how Greg Bear used information on nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to ecological adaptations in a new human subspecies.
See also: Association Between the Probability of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Normative Sex-Related Phenotypic Diversity in Brain Structure

…etiological models suggest that the biological male phenotype carries a higher intrinsic risk for ASD than the female phenotype. To our knowledge, this hypothesis has never been tested directly, and the neurobiological mechanisms that modulate ASD risk in male individuals and female individuals remain elusive.

The neurobiological mechanisms link sex differences in the cell types of yeasts to sex differences in virus-driven energy theft and all pathology.
Reviewed as: Evolution rising from the grave

Bear goes a little further in suggesting that such change can occur over about a generation, an idea that might be a little too radical at the moment. However, he does mention data suggesting that fruitflies can adapt to a new environment in just a few generations of selection.

Reviewed as: Living with the Neanderthals

Bear’s two Darwin novels were not written just to entertain. He also seeks to teach readers about science, to highlight our utilitarian politics and our inability to get along with each other, and to provide a quasi-rational basis for theology and morality. He advances a world view in which we are all part of the vast neural network of life, cutting across ethnic borders, species divides and the chasms between taxonomic kingdoms, in balance, and in two-way communication, with the ecosystem.

Bear qualifies to win the next Nobel Peace Prize, or minimally, the Prize for Literature. When you realize whose information is being used as a basis for the claims by Bill Gates that support young earth creationism, see also: Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk

…in an ironic twist, the evidence mentioned above indicates that viruses likely arose from their hosts and not the other way around. As molecular biologist and biochemist Peter Borger notes, “The most parsimonious answer is: the RNA viruses got their genes from their hosts. 6

Where else would viruses get their genes, and what else would force organisms to use the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to adapt?

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution

See: Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution (prequel)

See for comparison: Our 2017 Annual Letter Warren Buffett’s Best Investment

Reported as: Scientists create first stable semisynthetic organism

 “We can now get the light of life to stay on,” said Romesberg. “That suggests that all of life’s processes can be subject to manipulation.”

Life’s processes are manipulated by nutrient energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera. Supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. But, someone will make billions of dollars on vaccines like this one, which will cost millions and be delivered only to those who can pay for them.

Alternatively, here’s another money-maker: Get Well in the RNAi Way-RNAi, A Billion Dollar Baby in Therapy 

But wait. What about nutrient energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera. As a computer software developer, Bill Gates knows what can go wrong when a virus steals the energy as information that is required to run the central processing unit, which has sometimes been compared to the human brain.

See also: Bill Gates warns tens of millions could be killed by bio-terrorism  February 18, 2017

The next epidemic could originate on the computer screen of a terrorist intent on using genetic engineering to create a synthetic version of the smallpox virus … or a super contagious and deadly strain of the flu.

The creation of a synthetic virus and/or the virus-driven energy theft that leads to the creation of a deadly strain of the flu links the failure of nutrient energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference to protect organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft.

For example see: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

I placed that claim into the context of The Quest to End the Flu with this comment.

SARCASM ALERT

The idea of biophysical constraints seems antithetical to the idea of nature somehow selecting mutations that cause amino acid substitutions. However, I am not a biophysicist or evolutionary theorist.

The problem may be my focus on nutrient-dependent receptor-mediated amino acid substitutions in species from bacteria to humans (non-viral organisms). Since I am not a virologist or physicist, I’m not sure that the laws of physics apply to viruses and their replication.

If they do, natural selection for random mutations is not likely to result in amino acid substitutions because the thermodynamics of changes in organism-level thermoregulation preclude such randomness. Stability of protein biosynthesis and degradation that probably depends on protein folding must somehow be controlled. Besides, I don’t know how random mutations in viruses could be naturally selected for inclusion in the human virome (or in the virome of any organism capable of thermoregulating its thermodynamic intercellular signaling).

If the Second Law of Thermodynamics does not apply to viruses, which means the chemical bonds that enable the amino acid substitutions can form at random and somehow be naturally selected, the details of biophysical constraints in this article seems out of place, since I do not think in terms of constrained random mutations and natural selection in mutation-driven evolution.

Hopefully, someone with a background in biophysics will address my confusion in case others are confused. In addition, I wonder if the consequences of understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that govern viruses extend to consequences important to understanding the evolution of species from bacteria to humans via constrained random mutations and natural selection?

People with a background in biophysics or computer models of biophysically constrained top-down causation have addressed the confusion about random mutations and natural selection in mutation-driven evolution. Simply put, there is no such thing as natural selection for random mutations, which means there no such thing as the evolution of one species from another.
Francis S. Collins, author of The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief may not like the facts, but
See for comparison:The Darwin Code by Greg Bear

Perhaps the most intriguing method of gene swapping in bacteria is the bacteriophage, or bacterial virus. Bacteriophages–phages for short–can either kill large numbers of host bacteria, reproducing rapidly, or lie dormant in the bacterial chromosome until the time is right for expression and release.

Ask where Bill Gates got the idea that virus-driven energy theft could cause the death of 30 million people.
Also, see this Google search for “virus-driven energy theft.”
My claim follows the claims Greg Bear has been making during the past 2-3 decades. All energy-dependent changes, which link angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera, are biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Is it coincidental or providential that Bill Gates finally admits to what serious scientists have known for more than 2 decades about the forthcoming viral apocalypse?
The viral apocalypse will not be prevented by vaccines because viruses adapt to quickly. The facts about the energy-dependent adaptations of viruses compared to hosts are known to all serious scientists. For comparison, whose works have been funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation? Is philanthropy wasted on pseudoscientists?
See: Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution (sequel)
 

IMG_2329-e1413855233208-958x718

Wikipedia refutes theistic evolution

RNA-Directed DNA Methylation

Besides RNA molecules, a plethora of proteins are involved in the establishment of RdDM, like Argonautes, DNA methyltransferases, chromatin remodelling complexes and the plant-specific Polymerase IV and Polymerase V. All these act in concert to add a methyl-group at the 5′ position of cytosines. In contrast to animals, cytosines at all sequence context (CG, CHG, CHH) may get de novo methylated in plants.

There is no such thing as de novo methylation. Methylation is energy-dependent. Virus-driven energy theft prevents methylation and links mutations to all pathology via everything known to young earth creationists, which some of them have been reporting since the late 1990’s. That fact explains why theorists were forced to change RNA-Directed DNA Methylation to RNA interference in a face-saving attempt. Many pseudoscientists have claimed the creationists cannot be scientists and their attacks on young earth creationists have been among the most vicious of all attacks. But now, the young earth creationists have this:

RNA interference (RNAi) RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. Historically, it was known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling. Only after these apparently unrelated processes were fully understood did it become clear that they all described the RNAi phenomenon.

The so-called unrelated processes linked to RNAi phenomenon were place into the context of what was known about molecular epigenetics in our section on molecular epigenetics from this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

The alternative splicings are energy-dependent.
See also: Contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to variation in cancer risk among tissues

Because de novo modification appears to take place almost exclusively on CpG islands that are already silenced by polycomb in the normal tissue (8), we suggest that this modification works by preventing these genes from becoming activated, thereby inhibiting normal tissue differentiation, causing clonal selection for cells that may predispose to cancer (31). Indeed, many of these methylation targets have been shown to be “driver” genes in a number of different cell types (Fig. S6).

Virus-driven energy theft prevents what they claim are the de novo modifications and the energy theft links contraint-breaking mutations from viral latency to all pathology. Only biologically uninformed pseudoscientists have continued to portray energy-dependent changes in methylation as if the changes occurred in the context of de novo modification.
See for comparison. These creationists start with energy and link it to experience-dependent cell type differentiation via what is known about sensing and signalling in all living genera.
Multipurpose plant sensors startle scientists

Evolutionary scientists did not predict such elaborate sensory integration in a single protein system.

Sensing and signalling in all living genera is links the physiology of reproduction in soil bacteria to the phyisology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all livng genera. See for example:
The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

The TSARL1 transcript was alternatively spliced in the sweet progeny of Kurmi and 0654. A SNP in the last position of exon 3 (G2078C) co-segregates with the presence of saponins in the Kurmi × 0654 progeny. The G2078C SNP alters the canonical intron/exon splice boundary (Fig. 4e), probably leading to the alternative splicing at an upstream cryptic splice site in the sweet lines (Fig. 4e). This alternative splicing of TSARL1 results in a premature stop codon…

See also: Start codons in DNA may be more numerous than previously thought

Start codons are important to understand because they mark the beginning of a recipe for translating RNA into specific strings of amino acids (i.e., proteins).

See also: Codon optimality controls differential mRNA translation during amino acid starvation (2016)
They help to make the fact clear that all organisms must eat.
See also:Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (2016)
They make it clear that the bias between codons or amino acids, and mRNA expression is the link from natural selection for energy as information that links the selection of food to efficient, accurate translation, and folding of  expressed genes.  Simply put, the energy-dependent amino acid optimality code  differentiates between theories of evolution and facts about how ecological variation must be linked to ecological adaptation via the physiology of pheromone-controlled energy-dependent reproduction and supercoiled DNA in all living genera.
Obviously, pseudoscientists who cannot link energy-dependent changes in codon optimality have indirectly been responsible for all virus-driven pathology because they failed to link the viral hecatomb from archaea to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika virus-damaged DNA or to all other pathology, including cancer and degenerative diseases.
Thank God, Bill Gates and President Trump are among the billionaires who have decided to help others who have been combating evolutionary theorists to fight disease for several decades.
See also: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease

human-evolution

Vietnam Veterans and others with glioblastoma

The Agent Orange Widows Club

After their husbands died of an aggressive brain cancer, the widows of Vietnam veterans have found one another as they fight the VA for benefits.

See also: Vietnam Veterans with Glioblastoma Multiforme Stage 4 Brain Cancer
This post was removed:

Targeting NF-κB in glioblastoma: A therapeutic approach

This is the level of complexity that the VA needs to understand and link to the treatment of this aggressive cancer, which is obviously caused by virus-driven energy theft. When the VA understands that, the treatment will open the floodgates of litigation for all the pathology in every veteran who ever served overseas and failed to adapt to the viruses encountered during the stressful conditions of war.

“…we used the NBD peptide, a peptide corresponding to the NEMO binding domain that specifically inhibits the induction of NF-κB activity (15). The NBD peptide has been used previously to inhibit inflammation in animal models such as acute inflammation in carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and collagen-induced arthritis (31) or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (13). One of our main reasons for choosing the NBD peptide to treat GBM is the reported ability of NBD to enter into the CNS and exert an effect on NF-κB activation in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (14). Indeed, our results show that NBD treatment of mice with GBM significantly extended their survival, probably as a result of the specific inhibition of NF-κB not only in the tumor cells but also in the tumor microenvironment.”

My conclusion: Even if the VA understands what all serious scientists have learned about energy-dependent biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect, liberal academics will continue to try to prevent dissemination of accurate information. The facts about virus-driven energy theft compared to nutrient energy-dependent ecological adaptation refute every aspect of neo-Darwinian nonsense that is still being taught to your children and grandchildren if they are attending public schools.

Grady was the first person to get the treatment dripped through a tube into a space in the brain where spinal fluid is made, sending it down the path the cancer traveled to his spine.

This makes me wonder how Jimmy Carter’s brain cancer was cured. So far as I know, the cure must link genetically engineered cell type differentiation from viral latency in the cells dripped into the brain to the natural information processing.

Natural information processing can then link natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality from base pair changes to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that stabilize the supercoiled DNA of all living genera, and prevent the accumulation of virus-caused mutations.

See for instance: DNAM-1-based chimeric antigen receptors enhance T cell effector function and exhibit in vivo efficacy against melanoma.

CAR is the acronymn for chimeric antigen receptor. See for an example of how CAR-T cell treatment must link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance of the mouse model organism to vial latency via the anti-EGFRvIII chimeric antigen receptor.

Expression of miR-17-92 enhances anti-tumor activity of T-cells transduced with the anti-EGFRvIII chimeric antigen receptor in mice bearing human GBM xenografts

CONCLUSION:
These results warrant the development of novel CAR-T-cell strategies that incorporate miR-17-92 to improve therapeutic potency, especially in patients with GBM [glioblastoma].

Targeting NF-κB in glioblastoma: A therapeutic approach (revisited)

We have established a lentivirus-induced mouse model of malignant gliomas, which faithfully captures the pathophysiology and molecular signature of mesenchymal human GBM.

See also: MicroRNA-based regulation of epithelial–hybrid–mesenchymal fate determination

Now that treatment is based on what was learned about virus-driven energy theft in the mouse model organism, how much longer will it be before viruses are linked to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance that clearly link virus-driven messenger RNA degradation to tissue-type specific pathology in all cells of all living genera?

See also: A Constitutive Intrinsic Inflammatory Signaling Circuit Composed of miR-196b, Meis2, PPP3CC, and p65 Drives Prostate Cancer Castration Resistance

Reported as: Scientists uncover new way to defeat therapy-resistant prostate cancer

In addition to IκBα/NF-κB, the signaling circuit includes the microRNA miR-196b-3p, Meis2 and PPP3CC. While miR-196b-3p promotes tumor development, Meis2, which is an essential developmental gene in mammals, can disrupt the circuit when overexpressed. The protein PPP3CC can inhibit NF-κB activity in prostate cancer cells.

The likelihood that all signaling circuits include either nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs, which are linked to healthy longevity or viral microRNAs that are linked from virus-driven energy theft to pathology peaked at the time that more than 50,000 published works had reported on differences in microRNAs that linked hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to healthy longevity or to all pathology. (May 2016)

See for comparison: microRNA. On December 29, 2016 there were more than 56,600 published works.