Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution (sequel)

See: Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution
See also: Gate-controlled conductance switching in DNA


Our work demonstrates one can introduce an active control to DNA conductance by modifying a base with a redox group, and switch the DNA conductance reversibly between two levels by oxidizing or reducing the redox group with an EC gate. This strategy could be implemented in more sophisticated DNA nanostructures for active device building blocks. As the DNA conductance is an indicator of the molecule in the reduction or oxidation state, it is possible to study redox reaction kinetics at the single-molecule level by monitoring the DNA conductance.

Reported as: Switched-on DNA: Sparking nano-electronic applications

…the engineered DNA provides a nice tool to examine redox reaction kinetics, and thermodynamics the single molecule level…

This means they can examine virus-driven energy theft in the context of redox reaction kinetics and thermodynamics at the single molecule level, which links nutrient energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Simply put, they can link virus-driven energy theft from mutations to all pathology in species from archaea to modern humans.
See for comparison: Actor Steven Kearney reads excerpts from Greg Bear‘s 1985 novel Blood Music.

The virus is made up of tiny biological computers called “noocytes,” where were intended to improve the human body — giving it routine maintenance and maximizing human potential. Instead, it wiped out most of North America.

See also: Donald Trump’s abortion funding ban condemned by Bill Gates

“The US is the number one donor in the work that we do. Government aid can’t be replaced by philanthropy,” the 61-year-old told the Guardian.

Under the order, which is also known as the Mexico City Policy after it was first unveiled at a UN conference there in 1984, no government funding for family planning services can be given to clinics or groups outside the US that offer abortion or counselling services.

Why is Bill Gates condemning any of President Trump’s foreign policies before the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation stops funding research that is irrelevant to prevention of the viral apocalypse. Does Bill Gates decide who gets the vaccine and who doesn’t at the time the apocalypse begins, or will other billionaires like George Soros dictate all foreign policies? Who are you going to trust with the lives of your loved ones?

See also: Leakers beware: Trump has utterly defeated the disloyal coteries of the US intelligence community with my emphasis

The Trump administration exposed the false flag terrorism in the media.

Donald Trump posed as a hit man. He made sure that the leakers in the IC knew that their actions were illegal. He WARNED them. Then he launched his sting.

Donald Trump gave a press conference in which he admitted to the sting. He said that the leaks are real, but the news is fake.

It was his tactic, and he had to expose how he used it. That exemplifies Trump’s brilliance. Any intelligent disloyal Democrat from the intelligence community should have seen it coming. That suggests none of them are intelligent adversaries.
The biased media reporting on the press conference attests to lack of intelligence among the media representatives who reported the claims of Trump’s ignorant adversaries. The media representatives continue to look more foolish every time they speak out against the President of the United States.
The media representatives won’t be charged with any crimes. How many disloyal Democrats from the intelligence community will be prosecuted for treason?
How will President Trump deal with disloyal billionaires and others who waste his time attempting to influence the people of the United States and cause them to challenge him on topics they know nothing about?
Who will be the next billionaire to inadvertently refute theistic evolution by linking what is known about nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity and linking virus-driven energy theft to all pathology?
Will Mark Zuckerberg eliminate the false flag terrorist groups from Facebook?
Will Paul Allen stop funding brain research that does not link the speed of light on contact with water to all energy-dependent cell type differentiation in all living genera via biophotonics and optogenetics?
See also: Billionaires say they’ll end disease. Evolution suggests otherwise

Darwin introduced a viewpoint that was radically unsettling: we don’t progress to a more perfect form, but adapt to local environments. If humans are machines, then we can simply repair the broken parts. But if there is something more fundamental to the crisis of life than mere mechanisms of biology, then risk, and an element of danger, will always be with us.

Humans are not machines. Bill Gates probably knows that. And he probably knows that theistic evolution is the threat that can now be placed into the context of Non-theistic evolution

The major criticism of theistic evolution by non-theistic evolutionists focuses on its essential belief in a supernatural creator. These critics argue that by the application of Occam’s razor, sufficient explanation of the phenomena of evolution is provided by natural processes (in particular, natural selection), and the intervention or direction of a supernatural entity is not required.[42] Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins considers theistic evolution a superfluous attempt to “smuggle God in by the back door”.[43]

God doesn’t need to be smuggled in. He’s always been with those who believe. Believers know that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality occurs in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. The physiology of energy-dependent reproduction links natural processes to fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA that differentiate the cell types of all living genera.

Supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus driven energy theft, which is linked to all pathology by mutations. Theistic evolutionists may continue to claim that they believe in mutation-driven evolution, but that’s because they known nothing about energy-dependent top-down causation.

Ask Bill Gates or a theistic evolutionist where the energy comes from, and see for comparison.

Charge-altering releasable transporters (CARTs) for the delivery and release of mRNA in living animals

CARTs are structurally unique and operate through an unprecedented mechanism, serving initially as oligo(alpha-amino ester) cations that complex, protect, and deliver mRNA and then change physical properties through a degradative, charge-neutralizing intramolecular rearrangement, leading to intracellular release of functional mRNA and highly efficient protein translation.

Reported as: A new way Forward for Gene Therapy

Sickle-cell disease is caused by a mutation that links the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of virus-driven energy theft to failed nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair. Hemoglobin S is a naturally occurring hemoglobin variant — one of more than 1200 other variants. The variants link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the cell types of populations of ecologically adapted humans. Clearly, their lineages adapted to ecological variation in the parts of the world where they were raised. Researchers have delivered nutrient energy-dependent messenger RNA (mRNA) into cells that use the mRNA to make proteins. What’s missing from this report on gene therapy are facts about how nutrient energy-dependent viral latency must be linked to healthy longevity via energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance linked to amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA, or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
I continue to encourage comments from those who are not Combating Evolution to Fight Disease, especially if they are willing to tell others what they like about virus-driven energy theft and all pathology. Now that Bill Gates has clearly stated that virus-driven energy theft is not likely to be a good thing for humanity, perhaps he will join the serious scientists and/or help to fund their works.
See for example: The 2000 T. H. Morgan Medal Essay: H. J. Muller and the Nature of the Gene and works published by Ruth Ann Luna.
For example,  The Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis: What Role Does It Play in Autism Spectrum Disorder? and her presentation from February 22, 2017:
The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis: Linking Gastrointestinal and Neurobehavioral Processes in Autism Spectrum Disorder
She graciously answered these three questions:
Q: Is the gut microbiome the most likely link from nutrient energy-dependent metabolic networks to genetic networks and Precision Medicine via the National Microbiome Initiative?

Ruth Ann Luna PhD, MB (ASCP) CM

It’s certainly a key player in the crosstalk, but there’s still much to uncover about these pathways.

Q: Have you placed the 2016 publication of “Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition” into the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in your works?

Ruth Ann Luna PhD, MB (ASCP) CM

No we have not. We are working from functional gut microbiome up the gut-brain axis at this point and hoping to weave in as many other factors as possible.

Q: Who else is addressing the bidirectional communication besides your group?
Ruth Ann Luna PhD, MB (ASCP) CM

There are many other groups evaluating the gut-brain connection in general, but not necessarily exclusive to ASD. I’d suggest a quick search in Pubmed for the latest groups involved in this area.

See: Search Results for “autism” and Search results for “autism microrna”
Her expressed intent to “weave in other factors that already are known to me and to Teresa Binstock inspired me to perform this search for the terms autism and microRNA
See for example from February 17, 2017: Regulation of mRNA splicing by MeCP2 via epigenetic modifications in the brain

Our analysis thus indicated that MeCP2-mediated alternative splicing might influence neuronal functions via two different strategies: one is to regulate protein diversity by coding exons, and another is to regulate protein expression by non-coding exons. Our studies not only systematically explore the mechanisms underlying MeCP2-mediated alternative splicing, but also provide insights into the roles of MeCP2-mediated alternative splicing, which could influence both protein diversity and protein expression level in neurons.

Our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review explored the molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated alternative splicings and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry in the context of the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See our molecular epigenetics section in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

If my co-authors and I had been funded to link what was known about biologically-based cell type differentiation in all species to their origins and from ecological variation to ecological adaptations in all living genera, you would not need to ask whether or not some or all of your loved ones will survive the viral apocalypse.
Nutrient energy-dependent sexual differentiation in yeasts at the advent of sexual reproduction has been linked to all cell type differentiation in all individuals of all species via the conserved molecular mechanisms of pheromone-controlled reproduction that we began to detail two decades ago.
See also: Possible sexually dimorphic role of miRNA and other sncRNA in ASD brain

Our findings of sexual dimorphism in sncRNA levels underscore the importance of considering sex, in addition to age, when interpreting molecular findings on ASD brain.

The interpretation of molecular findings on ASD brain can be placed into the context of virus-driven energy theft and all pathology via the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika virus-damaged DNA in humans. For comparison see how Greg Bear used information on nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to ecological adaptations in a new human subspecies.
See also: Association Between the Probability of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Normative Sex-Related Phenotypic Diversity in Brain Structure

…etiological models suggest that the biological male phenotype carries a higher intrinsic risk for ASD than the female phenotype. To our knowledge, this hypothesis has never been tested directly, and the neurobiological mechanisms that modulate ASD risk in male individuals and female individuals remain elusive.

The neurobiological mechanisms link sex differences in the cell types of yeasts to sex differences in virus-driven energy theft and all pathology.
Reviewed as: Evolution rising from the grave

Bear goes a little further in suggesting that such change can occur over about a generation, an idea that might be a little too radical at the moment. However, he does mention data suggesting that fruitflies can adapt to a new environment in just a few generations of selection.

Reviewed as: Living with the Neanderthals

Bear’s two Darwin novels were not written just to entertain. He also seeks to teach readers about science, to highlight our utilitarian politics and our inability to get along with each other, and to provide a quasi-rational basis for theology and morality. He advances a world view in which we are all part of the vast neural network of life, cutting across ethnic borders, species divides and the chasms between taxonomic kingdoms, in balance, and in two-way communication, with the ecosystem.

Bear qualifies to win the next Nobel Peace Prize, or minimally, the Prize for Literature. When you realize whose information is being used as a basis for the claims by Bill Gates that support young earth creationism, see also: Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk

…in an ironic twist, the evidence mentioned above indicates that viruses likely arose from their hosts and not the other way around. As molecular biologist and biochemist Peter Borger notes, “The most parsimonious answer is: the RNA viruses got their genes from their hosts. 6

Where else would viruses get their genes, and what else would force organisms to use the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to adapt?

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution

See: Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution (prequel)

See for comparison: Our 2017 Annual Letter Warren Buffett’s Best Investment

Reported as: Scientists create first stable semisynthetic organism

 “We can now get the light of life to stay on,” said Romesberg. “That suggests that all of life’s processes can be subject to manipulation.”

Life’s processes are manipulated by nutrient energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera. Supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. But, someone will make billions of dollars on vaccines like this one, which will cost millions and be delivered only to those who can pay for them.

Alternatively, here’s another money-maker: Get Well in the RNAi Way-RNAi, A Billion Dollar Baby in Therapy 

But wait. What about nutrient energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera. As a computer software developer, Bill Gates knows what can go wrong when a virus steals the energy as information that is required to run the central processing unit, which has sometimes been compared to the human brain.

See also: Bill Gates warns tens of millions could be killed by bio-terrorism  February 18, 2017

The next epidemic could originate on the computer screen of a terrorist intent on using genetic engineering to create a synthetic version of the smallpox virus … or a super contagious and deadly strain of the flu.

The creation of a synthetic virus and/or the virus-driven energy theft that leads to the creation of a deadly strain of the flu links the failure of nutrient energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference to protect organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft.

For example see: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

I placed that claim into the context of The Quest to End the Flu with this comment.


The idea of biophysical constraints seems antithetical to the idea of nature somehow selecting mutations that cause amino acid substitutions. However, I am not a biophysicist or evolutionary theorist.

The problem may be my focus on nutrient-dependent receptor-mediated amino acid substitutions in species from bacteria to humans (non-viral organisms). Since I am not a virologist or physicist, I’m not sure that the laws of physics apply to viruses and their replication.

If they do, natural selection for random mutations is not likely to result in amino acid substitutions because the thermodynamics of changes in organism-level thermoregulation preclude such randomness. Stability of protein biosynthesis and degradation that probably depends on protein folding must somehow be controlled. Besides, I don’t know how random mutations in viruses could be naturally selected for inclusion in the human virome (or in the virome of any organism capable of thermoregulating its thermodynamic intercellular signaling).

If the Second Law of Thermodynamics does not apply to viruses, which means the chemical bonds that enable the amino acid substitutions can form at random and somehow be naturally selected, the details of biophysical constraints in this article seems out of place, since I do not think in terms of constrained random mutations and natural selection in mutation-driven evolution.

Hopefully, someone with a background in biophysics will address my confusion in case others are confused. In addition, I wonder if the consequences of understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that govern viruses extend to consequences important to understanding the evolution of species from bacteria to humans via constrained random mutations and natural selection?

People with a background in biophysics or computer models of biophysically constrained top-down causation have addressed the confusion about random mutations and natural selection in mutation-driven evolution. Simply put, there is no such thing as natural selection for random mutations, which means there no such thing as the evolution of one species from another.
Francis S. Collins, author of The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief may not like the facts, but
See for comparison:The Darwin Code by Greg Bear

Perhaps the most intriguing method of gene swapping in bacteria is the bacteriophage, or bacterial virus. Bacteriophages–phages for short–can either kill large numbers of host bacteria, reproducing rapidly, or lie dormant in the bacterial chromosome until the time is right for expression and release.

Ask where Bill Gates got the idea that virus-driven energy theft could cause the death of 30 million people.
Also, see this Google search for “virus-driven energy theft.”
My claim follows the claims Greg Bear has been making during the past 2-3 decades. All energy-dependent changes, which link angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera, are biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Is it coincidental or providential that Bill Gates finally admits to what serious scientists have known for more than 2 decades about the forthcoming viral apocalypse?
The viral apocalypse will not be prevented by vaccines because viruses adapt to quickly. The facts about the energy-dependent adaptations of viruses compared to hosts are known to all serious scientists. For comparison, whose works have been funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation? Is philanthropy wasted on pseudoscientists?
See: Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution (sequel)


Anti-entropic virucidal energy as information

 How Can Physics Underlie the Mind? Top-Down Causation in the Human Context by George Ellis (p. 404)

Repeated thousands of times over geological timescales, it is this relentless repetition of the top-down process of adaptive selection [29] that gives Darwinian evolution its enormous power.

Theorists never seem to ask questions about where the enormous power came from or where it goes when organisms die. They seem to think that relentless repetition of biophysically constrained energy-dependent protein biosynthesis and degradation automagically emerged so that organisms could begin to evolve via adaptive selection in the context of Darwinian evolution, which has no power source outside the context of Darwin’s “conditions of life.”

See for comparison: Who rules the waves? – Viruses might just be bit players in the drama of the seas. Then again, they could be major actors (1996)

Most consider viruses to be a legion of cripples, sterilised by ultraviolet radiation and rendered impotent by hosts that are largely immune to their threat. But a few researchers take the opposite view. And if they turn out to be right, viruses could radically alter the balance of life in the oceans, ripping away huge parts of the food web that supports whales, sea birds and the fisheries on which many people rely.

See also: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor (2016)

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

The nonsense about the non-existant power of evolution touted by George Ellis appears to have led to this report. Nonlinear self-adapting wave patterns  by David Kessler and Herbert Levine

We propose a new type of traveling wave pattern, one that can adapt to the size of physical system in which it is embedded.

They propose that an emergent wave pattern of light energy self-adapts to the size of a biophysically constrained system. Their proposal must link energy as information to all cell type differentiation and all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction.

Their proposal is not consistent with anything known to serious scientists, or even to George Ellis, about top-down causation. Serious scientists have linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from ecological variation to ecological adaptation. This has been done in the context of links from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera See for example: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA.

Six decades after the elucidation of its double helical structure, DNA continues to surprise us by revealing new information. Our cryo-ET, biochemical, and computational studies show the astounding versatility and dynamism of DNA depending on the degree of supercoiling. DNA simultaneously exists in a largely inactive B-form with bases tucked in and protected and an active, highly varied structure with exposed bases. Our data provide relative comparisons of supercoiling-dependent twisted, writhed, curved, and kinked conformations and associated base exposure. Each of these structural features may be differentially recognized by the proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules that modulate DNA metabolic processes.

Simply put, DNA supercoiling is energy-dependent. The energy does not create itself, which suggests it is not likely to self-adapt to any biophysical constraints. Indeed, the fact that energy as information in cell types is biophysically constrained suggests that the energy is epigenetically trapped and/or released as is required for metabolic networks to be linked to genetic networks. Simply put, there are likely to be thermodynamic cycles of energy transfer that link femotosecond blasts of ultraviolet light to DNA damage repair.

See: UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair

See also: Soft X-Ray Tomography Reveals Gradual Chromatin Compaction and Reorganization during Neurogenesis In Vivo

Although sequence-specific association of co-regulated genomic loci is appealing, random interactions between loci with shared chromatin properties might be an equally effective way of modulating transcription levels.

Sequence-specific association of co-regulated genomic loci is energy-dependent. Serious scientists have showed that none of the interactions between loci with shared chromatin properties randomly occur. For example, two epigenetic traps link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the energy-dependent interactions to the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The epigenetically-effected de novo creation of the GPCRs links chemotaxis and phototaxis to all morphological and behavioral phenotypes via the physiology of reproduction and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of supercoiled DNA.

For comparison, the proposal from Nonlinear self-adapting wave patterns  was framed outside the context of how thermodynamics must be linked to chemotaxis and/or phototaxis. The authors told us that an adiabatic process apprears to occur without the transfer of heat or matter. In an adiabatic process, the energy transfer between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings works in only one direction. The automagically created energy exists and gets the work done without the transfer of heat or matter.
That unidirectional process seems to exclude everything known about biophotonics, which provides the conceptual basis for a theory that extends the first law of thermodynamics to energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via what is known about protein folding chemistry. By pretending that self-adapting wave patterns exist outside the context of biophotonics, and by pretending that the author’s proposal fits into the context of a key concept in thermodynamics that is not linked to chemotaxis or phototaxis, we are led to believe that some chemical and physical processes occur so rapidly that they may be conveniently described by the “adiabatic approximation.” That means there is not enough time for the transfer of energy as information or as heat to go to or from the system.

But what about the energy as information carried by the light? Roger Penrose presciently addressed claims about light in non-technical terms when he asked: “How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?” (Roger Penrose 8 August 1991) See the forward to the reprint of Schrodinger’s: What is Life?

New type of traveling wave pattern could contain biological coordinates is the report on the most recent findings that link the traveling energy to biological coordinates in the context of the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding. The most recent finding can be placed into the context of what serious scientists already know.

See for example: MicroRNA-based regulation of epithelial–hybrid–mesenchymal fate determination (2013), which also was co-authored by Herbert Levine. (I noticed that Eshel Ben-Jacob is the senior author because I am more familiar with Eshel’s works.)

See also: Stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype (2016) Two of the co-authors are Eshel Ben-Jacob and Herbert Levine, but Eshel Ben-Jacob died prior to publication.

See: In Memory of Professor Eshel Ben Jacob

Image may contain: 1 person, text

Note: There is no indication of whether Herbert Levine attended and I do not know if he knows anything about RNA-mediated cell type stability. I do not want to speculate about this. I will mention that all the claims made by Eshel Ben-Jacob about energy-dependent natural information processing and biophysically constrained cell type differentiation have been placed into the context of accurate information about RNA-mediated biologically-based cause and effect.

See for example:Phyto-Medicine in Gene(s) Targeting Future Direction for Sickle Cell Disease Management 6/13/16 Reported by Journals and Conferences on Genetics & Molecular Biology on 12/15/16

Biochemically, SCD occurs due to a non- conservative substitution of a #polarglutamate (Glu) by non-polar valine (Val) in an invariant region, the sixth position of Hb-β chain-subunit (GAG/GTG; Glu (E) Val (V); rs334). Replacement of this single non-polar amino acid ‘valine’ results in a biochemical difference that leads to formation of a sticky patch on the surface of the β-chains. The sticky patch is observed on both the #oxygenated (“R” Form) and deoxygenated (“T” Form) of HbS. This distort folding and binding pattern of the Hb molecule, due to altered properties. Other known mechanism of #polymerization of Hb in SCD involves nucleation, which is due to the aggregation of HbS molecules.

They linked one nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitution to the stability of a hemoglobin variant that protects some human populations from malaria. It is one of ~1264 human hemoglobin variants that exemplify how ecological variation is linked from biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to ecological adaptations.

That fact can be placed into the context of Dobzansky’s claims in 1964 and in his 1973 expose of the evolution industry. He showed that the cure for all pathology must begin from the understanding of energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. Energy-dependent changes in base pairs link the sun’s quantized anti-entropic virucidal energy from autophagy to single nucleotide polymorphisms and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. The fixation of the substitutions helps to ensure healthy longevity in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction and supercoiled DNA, which prevents the virus-driven entropy of all organized genomes.
Dobzhansky 1964

Ingram and others found that hemoglobin S differs from A in the substitution of just a single amino acid, valine in place of glutamic acid in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule.

Dobzhansky 1973

…the socalled alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

See also: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease 9/13/14

Darwin probably anticipated the insemination of population genetics that led to the bastardization of his detailed observations in the “Modern Synthesis.” He politely insisted that ‘conditions of life’ be considered before natural selection.

There are two ‘conditions of life.’ It is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. Rosenberg and Queitsch now note the work with Dobzhansky’s rarely acknowledged claim: “I am a creationist and an evolutionist.” They also declare the need for “Deep understanding of the mechanisms that generate variation at the molecular level…”

Deep understanding of the ‘conditions of life’ does not come from theory.

Problems with the “modern synthesis” now lead us back to the facts about biologically-based cause and effect that Darwin and Dobzhansky approached with humility, which are the same biological facts that evolutionists approached with ignorance about behavioral affects and the arrogance that accompanies that ignorance. Rosenberg and Queitsch echo the sentiments of those who have been subjected to academic suppression.

Clearly, however, “nothing in evolution makes sense except in the light of biology” is not an exaggeration. It is a common sense statement about the biologically plausible genesis of functional cell types. Population genetics and evolutionary theories abandoned the biophysical constraints of ecological variation and the physiology of reproduction, which enable epigenetically-effected nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled receptor-mediated ecological adaptations and species diversity via the complexities of protein folding and niche construction.

It’s time for biophysicists to tell theorists and pathologists how to differentiate between theories about the genesis of different cell types and the biological facts about the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations that enable the genesis of different cell types in individuals of different species. Simply put, it’s time to stop trying to explain ecological adaptations in the context of mutations and evolution.

See also: Mutation Rate Variation is a Primary Determinant of the Distribution of Allele Frequencies in Humans

Substitutions in other lineages have proven to be highly informative for understanding deleterious effects in the contemporary human genome; among numerous features that have been considered, the strongest predictors of the pathogenicity of a mutation are species divergence features [83–86]. Nevertheless, methods used to predict the deleteriousness of a mutation at a site typically rely on a single summary of how variable a site is across the phylogenetic tree. Our analysis suggests that the location of a mutation on the evolutionary tree is informative of how deleterious the same mutation is for humans. It is our hope that the integration of divergence patterns and sequence context into methods that predict the fitness or health effects of human mutations could increase accuracy and predictive power.

Do not trust anyone who does not know the difference between a mutation and a fixed amino acid substitution to explain any aspect of RNA-mediated biologically-based cause and effect. The number of theorists who want you to believe in their pseudoscientic nonsense is hundreds of times more than the number of serious scientists with experimental evidence of how energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry must be linked to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in all living genera by keeping virus-driven energy theft in check.

See also: Keeping CRISPR in Check
Excerpt 1)

Notably, the work is “going specifically after Cas9 and then applying the discoveries in human cells,” Harvard’s George Church, who was not involved in the study, wrote in an email to The Scientist.

Excerpt 2)

Knowing how the viral enemy evades CRISPR-based immunity will provide valuable insights into ways to better fight [viruses],” wrote Horvath.

This is a complete reversal of claims by George Church that were put into the context of this report:
Get Well in the RNAi Way-RNAi, A Billion Dollar Baby in Therapy

…the design, stability and degradation of RNAi based effective molecules appears to be the major lime light to challenge the conventional drug safety concerns and ensures to be the most powerful gene recovery in future which execute billion dollar business hope.

See for comparison: Obama Advisers Urge Action Against CRISPR Bioterror Threat
See also: Jon Stewart interviews Greg Bear It’s not very funny anymore, is it?
Also: March 9, 2016 See Gene intelligence: The risks and rewards of genome editing resonate beyond the clinic.

Last month, one of the top intelligence officials in the United States warned that genome-editing technology is now a potential weapon of mass destruction.

CRISPR—a weapon of mass destruction?

James Clapper placed “genome editing” among six threats listed in the section on weapons of mass destruction.

See also 12/9/16 The B/Z reaction, and the problem with peer review 

…oscillating chemical reactions predictable by mathematical formula are partially responsible for organizing cells to form organs, bone, and tissue.

The predictable oscillating chemical reactions have now been placed into the context of  Nonlinear self-adapting wave patterns  by David Kessler and Herbert Levine, who I mentioned near the beginning of this blog post.
Abstract (with my emphasis):

We propose a new type of traveling wave pattern, one that can adapt to the size of physical system in which it is embedded. Such a system arises when the initial state has an instability for a range of wavevectors, k , that extends down to k = 0, connecting at that point to two symmetry modes of the underlying dynamical system. The Min system of proteins in E. coli is such a system with the symmetry emerging from the global conservation of two proteins, MinD and MinE. For this and related systems, traveling waves can adiabatically deform as the system is increased in size without the increase in node number that would be expected for an oscillatory version of a Turing instability containing an allowed wavenumber band with a finite minimum.

None of the serious scientists I have ever known would take Schrodinger’s claims about the anti-entropic energy of sunlight and link everything from the creation of energy to an oscillatory version of a Turing instability without addressing the loss of energy as information, which links virus-driven energy theft to genomic entropy. The fact that someone who has co-authored with Eshel Ben-Jacob left out the role of virus-driven energy theft probably never occurred to anyone who read the article. And so, here we are.
See also: Herbert Levine

Research Statement

Biological systems operate in nonequilibrium states, using free energy derived from metabolism to run all the various processes needed for survival. Understanding the chemical and physical mechanisms that govern these processes is an essential component for advancing our quantitative understanding biological systems. Ultimately, this new level of understanding should prove crucial for tackling currently intractable diseases such as metastatic cancer.

The energy derived from metabolism is nutrient-dependent. The physical and chemical mechanisms that link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in all living genera are linked from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy via the claims of serious scientists like Gunter Witzany.
See also: Life is physics and chemistry and communication