Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Who created your virus-driven death gene? (2)

Evolution of Constrained Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Ligand Conformation and Receptor Selectivity

These findings indicate that the substitution of glycine for a chiral amino acid in GnRH during evolution allows a more constrained conformation for receptor binding and that this subtle single amino acid substitution in a site remote from the ligand functional domains has marked effects on its structure and activity.

The difference between an energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitution and a mutation has been largely ignored as pseudoscientists linked accidents to evolution.
See for example: Can watery asteroids explain why life is ‘left-handed’? (2009)

Sandwalk readers will know that I [Larry Moran] prefer an evolutionary explanation.

My summary of his evolutionary explanation:
The simplest amino acid is glycine where the R group is just a hydrogen atom. Glycine is not a chiral compound and there’s no such thing as L-glycine or D-glycine. All other natural amino acids are chiral. Larry Moran claims that glycine might have formed spontaneously. If so, the exclusive presence of L-amino acids instead of D-amino acids is just an accident. But it is an accident that somehow started with the spontaneous formation of glycine. The spontaneous formation of anything would be considered to be a miracle by those who  do not believe in evolutionary explanations.
Anyone who does not recognize the fact that people like Larry Moran think in terms of the accidental creation of the only achiral amino acid, which stabilizes the organized genomes of all vertebrates, should not read further.
It is a waste of time to examine facts after you decide to believe in more pseudoscientific nonsense than any serious scientist has ever considered. If you have not learned the difference between a mutation and an energy-dependent amino acid substitution, are you a well-trained medical practitioner?
See: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

Hemoglobinopathies are the commonest single-gene genetic disorders in humans, resulting from pathogenic genome variants in the human α-like and β-like globin gene clusters (reviewed in 1). Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [INsertions/DELetionS] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

Difference in mass resulting from the change of a single amino acid 

The mass of normal alpha chain is 15126.3 Da and that of the normal beta chain 15867.5, the changes induced by single point mutations are given above (only those allowed by the genetic code are given). As an example the change from Asp to His will increase the normal mass by 22 units and the reverse change will decrease the mass by the same amount.

The example links an increase in the stability and/or a decrease in the stability of the organized genome to a mutation and also to an amino acid substitution. The stability of all organized genomes is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained via differences in hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The differences are measured in the context of blood gas analyses, and you should already know that the potential of hydrogen (pH) will determine the patient outcome — before you order the test.

If you do not understand this, find someone from the medical laboratory me to discuss it with. You may feel like a fool, but you will be less likely to kill someone via your ignorance.

See Fig. 2 Difference in the network of hydrogen bonds between high- and low-altitude Hb variants, HH-H and LL-L, respectively.

The differences in the network of hydrogen bonds between high- and low-altitude Hb variants should be placed into the context of why medical laboratory scientists must be trained to calibrate blood gas analyzers based on the barometric pressure at the location of the lab. For comparison to a somewhat less technical approach to the link from the circulatory system to nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs and pheromone-controlled biodiversity, see: Primo Vascular/Meridian System 2016

Thornton Streeter claimed that this a small contribution to understanding energy medicine. It links everything known about the creation of energy-dependent hemoglobin variants to all food energy-dependent biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and the vascular/meridian system of humans.

See also: Ugur Murat Ozdemiroglu Admin of WORLD CONGRESS OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY FORUM reported Yesterday at 3:36am on 12/11/17

By far the most important disease resulting from a mutation to an abnormally functioning hemoglobin is sickle cell disease, in which a single base change in the DNA results in a substitution of valine for glutamic acid at the sixth position in the beta globin chain.

Like all other quantized energy-as-information/food energy-dependent ecological adaptations, this hemoglobin variant is frequently reported to be a mutation. The link from one base pair change to the pheromone controlled physiology of reproduction and fixation of an amino acid substitution in the organized genomes of human populations protects them from extinction. The extinctions are caused by the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that most people indirectly link from malarial parasites to hemoglobin variants such as Hemoglobin S. Most people do not link viruses to all pathology, despite the historical record.

See: Biology, molecular and organismic (1964)

Ingram and others found that hemoglobin S differs from A in the substitution of just a single amino acid, valine in place of glutamic acid in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule.

See also: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

Isolated thymus nuclei transport amino acids into an intranuclear pool by a process which seems to depend on energy from nuclear ATP synthesis (20).

Link opens pdf:  Participation of glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle, in nuclear adenosine triphosphate synthesis (1963)

…thymus nuclei appear to have an endogenous substrate, and some experiments are presented which suggest that this substrate is probably not glycogen or glucose.

Ten years after McEwen et al., (1963) linked the creation of ATP to the creation of RNA via an endogenous substrate in all cell types of all living genera, Dobzhansky placed everything known about the creation of all biodiversity on Earth into the context of: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

A single base pair change and one amino acid substitution differentiates the cell types of gorillas compared to chimpanzees and modern humans. That fact has finally forced pseudoscientists to begin to examine the role that viruses play in all pathology.

See: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in bacteria is linked to the creation of archaea and the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in humans is linked to the creation of non-human primates by the conserved molecular mechanisms that were reported in MicroRNAs: Milk’s epigenetic regulators

Our perception of milk has changed from a “simple food” to a highly sophisticated maternal-neonatal nutrient and communication system orchestrating early programming of the infant. Milk miRNAs delivered by exosomes and milk fat globules derived from mammary gland epithelial cells play a key role in this process. Exosomes resist the harsh intestinal environment, are taken up by intestinal cells via endocytosis, and reach the systemic circulation of the milk recipient. The most abundant miRNA found in exosomes and milk fat globules of human and cow’s milk, miRNA-148a, attenuates the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, which is critically involved in epigenetic regulation. Another important miRNA of milk, miRNA-125b, targets p53, the guardian of the genome, and its diverse transcriptional network. The deficiency of exosomal miRNAs in infant formula and the persistent uptake of milk miRNAs after the nursing period via consumption of cow’s milk are two epigenetic aberrations that may induce adverse long-term effects on human health.

Only the best medical practitioners and researchers have grasped the fact that Carl Woese was wrong when he reported there were three domains of life. There is only one domain of life and the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is linked to all pathology in all living genera.

November 22, 2017 Sci-Hub, often referred to as the “Pirate Bay of Science,” lost three of its domain names this week.

Sci-hub.io, sci-hub.cc, and sci-hub.ac now have the infamous “serverhold” status which suggests that the responsible registries intervened. The status, which has been used previously when domain names are flagged for copyright issues, strips domains of their DNS entries.

November 23, 2017 RNA quality  Items: 1 to 20 of 604

Unless you can find access to Sci-Hub, you might find it difficult to access information on RNA quality.

See: The determinants of alternative RNA splicing in human cells

Alternative splicing represents an important level of the regulation of gene function in eukaryotic organisms. It plays a critical role in virtually every biological process within an organism, including regulation of cell division and cell death, differentiation of tissues in the embryo and the adult organism, as well as in cellular response to diverse environmental factors. In turn, studies of the last decade have shown that alternative splicing itself is controlled by different mechanisms. Unfortunately, there is no clear understanding of how these diverse mechanisms, or determinants, regulate and constrain the set of alternative RNA species produced from any particular gene in every cell of the human body. Here, we provide a consolidated overview of alternative splicing determinants including RNA-protein interactions, epigenetic regulation via chromatin remodeling, coupling of transcription-to-alternative splicing, effect of secondary structures in pre-RNA, and function of the RNA quality control systems. We also extensively and critically discuss some mechanistic insights on coordinated inclusion/exclusion of exons during the formation of mature RNA molecules. We conclude that the final structure of RNA is pre-determined by a complex interplay between cis- and trans-acting factors. Altogether, currently available empirical data significantly expand our understanding of the functioning of the alternative splicing machinery of cells in normal and pathological conditions. On the other hand, there are still many blind spots that require further deep investigations.

See also Neuropathological and transcriptomic characteristics of the aged brain

…we compared gene measures of RNA quality (RIN) and of dementia status (before and after accounting for RIN).

See also: Study finds infection and schizophrenia symptom link November 22, 2017

…activation of the maternal immune system in rats was sufficient to produce impaired timing, which is likely critical to other schizophrenia symptoms and impairments.Impaired ability to judge time accurately is a primary symptom in patients and this is also thought to be related to other symptoms, such as hallucinations, and cognitive impairment.

All Brain Perception is Rhythmic and Cyclical Says Newest Neuroscience

“We have suspected for some time that the senses are not constant but are processed via cyclical, or rhythmic functions; these findings lend new weight to that theory.”

It’s not a theory. Experimental evidence of biophysically constrained top-down causation links the energy-dependent RNA-mediated constraints on viral latency to healthy longevity via everything known to serious scientists since the time that the energy-dependent creation of ATP was linked to the energy-dependent creation of RNA.
See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
For comparison: This is a ridiculous theory.
Evolution of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Animals and Their Role in Speciation

DNA methylation is involved in gene regulation, silencing of transposons, imprinting, polyphenism, and consolidation of speciation. It may even act as a driver of evolution via stochastic developmental and environmentally induced epigenotype diversification, transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic patterns with phenotypic effects, and differential selection and genetic fixation of these phenotypes.

All ridiculous theories can be compared in the context of: To forget or to remember? Memory depends on subtle brain signals, scientists find

“The idea is, constantly as we learn information, there is a slow process that whittles away memories, and it continues whittling them away unless another part of the brain signals the memory is important and overrides it,” Davis said.

It may be that the process of acquiring and forgetting memories ebbs and flows in a state of balance, he said. Important memories like the taste of mom’s pumpkin pie might be forever retained, but trivialities like what you wore 10 years ago can fade into oblivion without consequence.

“If you have too much memory that is old and unnecessary, why keep them around? Why shouldn’t you have a system for removing those for optimal function of the brain?” Davis asked. “We’re getting all this information, all this learning during the day, and the brain may be saying, ‘No, no, bring me back to my basal, my happy state.'”

Many questions remain to be solved, Davis noted. “We need to figure out what is downstream—walk down the pathway to find the complete signaling system for forgetting,” he said. “We are very early in this research.”

Researchers who think “WE” are very early in this research are biologically uninformed science idiots. The COMT Val158Met amino acid substitution links food odor and pheromones to the biophysically constrained creation of one enzyme, which has been linked to differences in the dopaminergic reward system during the transition from adolescence to adulthood.
See:Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults
I’m not sure why anyone would not already know how to link food odors and pheromones to enzymes and metabolism in humans in the context of the Human Microbiome Initiative and Precision Medicine Initiative.  But I understand why losers tend to claim that winners are still very early in this research.
Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull
See for comparison: Book Review by Mark Sergeant

The Scent of Eros is certainly an engaging text that informs the reader about the majority of key studies performed on human olfaction. Where it is let down is a lack of supporting evidence for some of the ideas considered, and a lack of critical consideration for some of the evidence that is presented. A reader unfamiliar with olfaction research could come away from this text unaware of several key debates within the field…

The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality
By James Vaughn Kohl and Robert T. Francoeur
On page 298, we linked levels of DHEA to schizophrenia and to the odor of schizophrenics via the metabolism of DHEA to androsterone and etiocholanolone, which are indicators of nutrient stress and/or social stress. All stress-linked illnesses have since been linked from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to pathology in species from microbes to humans.

See also: Epigenetic modifications poster
See also: Epigenetics round-up of 2014

Changes in histone acetylation may aid memory reconsolidation in post-traumatic stress disorder

See also: Formulation and evaluation of anti-suicidal nasal spray of Thyrotropin releasing hormone
The fact that the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology in all living genera has been established by serious scientists.
See also: Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis
Clearly, another question must be asked:
The first question: Who created your virus-driven death gene?

The next question: Who wants the virus-driven death gene to continue to be activated?

For example: The antagonism of the biologically uninformed science idiot who is the moderator of the Human Ethology Yahoo group increases each time scientific progress is made towards prevention of neurodegenerative diseases or suicide prevention. Instead of linking the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to suicide and Alzheimer’s, he posts information like this.

Choice of a suicide method: Trends and characteristics

Efforts towards suicide prevention in our veterans and others are replaced with information on their choice of a suicide method.

For God and Country

Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (1)

The structure-energy landscape of NMDA receptor gating

…using single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we map the energy landscape of the first transmembrane segment of the Rattus norvegicus NMDA receptor under resting and various liganded conditions. These results show kinetically and structurally distinct changes associated with apo, agonist-bound, and inhibited receptors linked by a linear mechanism of gating at this site. Furthermore, the smFRET data suggest that allosteric inhibition by zinc occurs by an uncoupling of the agonist-induced changes at the extracellular domains from the gating motions leading to an apo-like state, while dizocilpine, a pore blocker, stabilizes multiple closely packed transmembrane states.

Achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide links the energy landscape from ecological variation to the stability of the 7 transmembrane states in the GnRH receptor to the creation of all biophysically constrained vertebrate biodiversity via feedback loops that link food odors and pheromones to the survival of all species on Earth. Organisms die without food and species become extinct when too many conspecifics die. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, links mutations to all pathology and to death and the extinction of species.
Reported as: Molecule Movements Through Nerve Cells Could Lead to Multi-functional Drugs

The NMDA receptor is set of four protein subunits, each with four domains, and each of those domains has a particular function. Collectively, they span the cell membrane. Each subunit can have many “states,” or shapes, that regulate which electrical signals — and how many of them — pass through. The subunits sit on each side of the channel and activate when they bind both glutamate and glycine neurotransmitter ligands and trigger the signaling pathway that allows positively charged ions to pass into the cell.

The energy-dependent “states” are the functional shapes of receptors that link electrical signals to receptor-mediated behavior and to all biodiversity. Their function can be examined in the context of links from electrons to ecosystems via cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).
All energy-dependent functions in all living genera link top-down causation from food energy-dependent feedback loops to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species of microbes to survival of all species. For example, the effects of energy-dependent binding of glutamate and glycine neurotransmitter ligands to their substrates can be examined in the relatively simplistic context of this 2005 review of ecological variation and ecological adaptations.
Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

It appears that GnRH neurons integrate a variety of information about the internal state of the animal and its external environment. At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. Among these are areas involved in odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, arousal, reward, and other functions. This suggests that GnRH neurons are poised to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior in accordance with the overall state of the animal.

These studies also indicate that GnRH neurons are likely to influence numerous brain functions. They appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions (Badr and Pelletier, 1987; Jennes et al., 1988; Jennes et al., 1997). BL+ neurons likely to receive synaptic input from GnRH neurons were seen in areas associated with numerous different functions, including odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, appetite, defensive behavior, motor programs, and the relay of information to higher cortical areas. These results may reflect a strategy wherein GnRH neurons can modify diverse functions in order to coordinate the internal state of the animal and its behavior with reproduction in order to optimize reproductive success.

See for comparison to what is known about the feedback loops: Replication defective viral genomes exploit a cellular pro-survival mechanism to establish paramyxovirus persistence
My summary: Viral persistence (paramyxovirus persistence) and biophysically constrained epigenetically-effected viral latency require the energy-dependent fine-tuning of epigenesis and epistasis that links the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from species of microbes to humans via what is known about soil microbes, fescue toxicosis, and the bull sperm microRNAome.
The most confusing representation of biophysically constrained energy-dependent epigenetically-effected top-down causation I have ever seen was reported as: Team shows how seemingly acute viral infections can persist

…our cells are wired to survive if they are engaged in an antiviral response…

One expert from the report, which is about the well known aspects of food energy-dependent autophagy attests to all the facts known to serious scientists. The facts refute the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by most theorists. For example, see the three articles that link the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in soil bacteria to all biodiversity in mammals.

  1. The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression
  2. Circulating microRNA as candidates for early embryonic viability in cattle
  3. The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen 

The presence of viruses in semen is probably more widespread than currently appreciated, and the absence of virus in genital secretions should not be assumed for traditionally non–sexually transmitted viruses. The investigation of virus detection and persistence in semen across a range of viruses is useful for clinical and public health reasons, in particular for viruses that lead to high mortality or morbidity rates or to epidemics.

The presence of viruses in bacteria (bacteriophages) and in semen attests help to explain how serious scientists have linked the virus-driven theft of quantized energy from the degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology in all living genera. The facts can now be placed into the context of the fact that other organisms typically do not commit suicide. Energy-dependent autophagy typically links chirality to the protection of all cell types in all individuals of all species from suicide. That fact left me and others with questions about why people commit suicide.
See: Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (2)
See also: Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (3)

Cytosis

Your indifference is killing you and others (4)

Summary:
I suspect that Subatomic, like Cytosis, will help link atoms to ecosystems via my model of nutritional epigenetics and the pheromone-controlled visual perception of mass and energy, which has been linked from the sense of smell in bacteria across the space time continuum via olfaction.
From 7 years ago.
Published 7 years ago on 15 Aug 2010 by James V. Kohl of Pheromones.com, RNA-mediated.com, and Autophagy.pro
Kohl is the co-author of “The Scent of Eros” and he is the creator of: The Scent of Eros and The Mind’s Eyes human pheromone-enhanced products. This is an excerpt from his presentation at the 2010 Annual Gathering of Mensa (i.e., the “high IQ” society).

Pheromones have since been linked from suicide prevention to the prevention of all neurodegenerative diseases and the prevention of all other pathology, which includes cancer prevention.

See for examples:

 
 
 

Everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation and viral latency in the context of quantum physics and the space time continuum will soon be known to everyone older than 10 who plays the game “Cytosis” and the game “Subatomic.”

In less than 3 hours of play-time, it will become clear that the virus-driven theft of quantized energy causes the degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.

Suzan Mazur: What is your definition of life?

Eviatar Nevo: Our understanding of origin of life is very slim. . . . [First] life didn’t fossilize. The best we can know about origin of life may be from viruses we are looking at. They could have been at the origin of life before they parasitized it, or became symbionts in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. . . .

Young earth creationist / scientists put the virus-driven parasitism of life into the perspective of perfect creation in: Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk

“The most parsimonious answer is: the RNA viruses got their genes from their hosts.”6

The fact that viruses got their genes from their hosts became clear in the context of what is known about natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality.

The extent of codon usage bias in human RNA viruses and its evolutionary origin (2003)

Revealing the determinants of codon usage bias is central to the understanding of factors governing viral evolution. Herein, we report the results of a survey of codon usage bias in a wide range of genetically and ecologically diverse human RNA viruses. This analysis showed that the overall extent of codon usage bias in RNA viruses is low and that there is little variation in bias between genes. Furthermore, the strong correlation between base and dinucleotide composition and codon usage bias suggested that mutation pressure rather than natural (translational) selection is the most important determinant of the codon bias observed. However, we also detected correlations between codon usage bias and some characteristics of viral genome structure and ecology, with increased bias in segmented and aerosol-transmitted viruses and decreased bias in vector-borne viruses. This suggests that translational selection may also have some influence in shaping codon usage bias.

Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

Synopsis

Embedded Image

In addition to spelling out protein sequence, mRNA codon triplets contain translation‐dependent regulatory information that influences transcript stability and contributes to controlled turnover of maternal mRNAs in frogs, mice, and flies.

  • Codon optimality forms a regulatory code within the genetic code that controls mRNA stability and translation efficiency.

  • Codon composition shapes maternal mRNA clearance during the maternal‐to‐zygotic transition in zebrafish, frog, mouse, and fly in a translation‐dependent manner.

  • Amino acid composition also influences mRNA stability in vertebrates.

  • Codon optimality correlates with codon bias, suggesting that codon optimality shapes steady‐state mRNA levels in homeostasis.

Excerpt:

The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.

Reported as: A code within a code: how codons influence mRNA stability

The sequence changes in the amino acid optimality code link energy-dependent changes in base pairs to fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA via the physiology of reproduction. The substitutions protect all organized genome from the virus driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

See also: Kinetic Rain | Art + Com

The level of creativity required to link physics to chemistry and the conserved molecular mechanisms that link kinetic energy and food energy to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via quantum mechanics and amino acid substitutions is exemplified in this moving sculpture and ignored by theorists who might unknowingly attribute all the interactions to mutations and evolution.

See also: The  Critical Thinking Cafe

The group has been archived. No more comments will be added by those who lack the critical thinking skills required to link what organisms eat to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and all biodiversity.

It should be even clearer that two games “Cytosis” and “Subatomic” will put an end to any theoretical nonsense about mutations and evolution.

I suspect that Subatomic, like Cytosis, will help link atoms to ecosystems via my model of nutritional epigenetics and the pheromone-controlled visual perception of mass and energy, which has been linked from the sense of smell in bacteria across the space time continuum via olfaction.
Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

neuronal-plasticity

Life is energy-dependent task management (4)

See also: Life is energy-dependent task management (3)
Addendum: This post has been removed or could not be loaded.
I attempted to post this follow-up to the discussion thread on the Neuroscience FB group and found that Pat Sweeney (aka Pat’s Weeny) had removed it.
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See also: Suicide Prevention Coordinator Committed to Helping Veterans in Crisis
Suicide prevention efforts might be more beneficial if potential victims understood what is already known about the link from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. The fact that pseudoscientific nonsense has prevailed and prevented accurate diagnosis and effective treatment is compounded by the fact that anyone who tries to help is confronted with claims that he or she is a creationist.
See also: We’re sorry, this news story is no longer available
See instead this discussion attempt:  Nobel honors discoveries on how cells eat themselves
See also instead: 4 veterans from one Indiana Guard unit have committed suicide

“They were all the same,” said Justin’s father, John Williams. “All of them. Why? Why is there four from one platoon?”

My comment: No one can be sure, but the fact that they all came from the same area suggests they were equally well-adapted to the chemical ecology in the region of the country that they were raised. If they all deployed to the same region in another country, they might all have contracted the same virus, which sucked so much life out of them until they thought they had no more reason to live. Or, as portrayed in a science fiction novel, perhaps they simply forgot about life and thought they had no reason to fight against death.
Other comments from me and antagonist, Roy Niles can be found here: Nobel honors discoveries on how cells eat themselves
Additional antagonism is framed in the context of science journalism such as this: Cracking the Immune Code: More Than Just Genes

Re: “Diversity isn’t just programmed into our genes; it emerges from how our genes respond to the environment.”
All biophysically constrained energy-dependent biodiversity arises only in the context of autophagy. If there is not enough energy for cell type differentiation and proliferation to establish the link to healthy longevity, virus-driven pathology sucks the life out of all cell types. That fact was reported in the context of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. You should stop ignoring it!

See also: RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics POSTER SESSION: Genetics & Genomics, May 11-12, 2016