Astrophysical phenomenology meets pheromone-ology: Slugs that “eat light”
Theoretical physics and molecular biology can be compared in the context of their explanatory power. For example (with my emphasis):
Theoretical physics (2015): Firewall Phenomenology with Astrophysical Neutrinos
Abstract: One of the most fundamental features of a black hole in general relativity is its event horizon: a boundary from which nothing can escape. There has been a recent surge of interest in the nature of these event horizons and their local neighbourhoods. In an attempt to resolve black hole information paradox(es), and more generally, to better understand the path towards quantum gravity, firewalls have been proposed as an alternative to black hole event horizons. In this letter, we explore the phenomenological implications of black holes possessing a surface or firewall. We predict a potentially detectable signature of these firewalls in the form of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux. We compute the spectrum of this neutrino flux in different models and show that it is a possible candidate for the source of the PeV neutrinos recently detected by IceCube. We further show that, independent of the generation mechanism, IceCube data can be explained (at 1σ confidence level) by conversion of accretion onto stellar mass (supermassive) black holes, into neutrinos at efficiencies of ≳10−4(10−2).
My comment: Thanks to Jaya R. Bista who alerted me to the article linked above. Their attempt to resolve information paradoxes leads to their claim (“We further show that…“) that they explained the data. They showed that the resolve of information paradoxes must be explained in the context of facts about where the information came from, not from the data generated by the information.
Molecular biology (1964) Biology, molecular and organismic
Excerpt 1) “Biological phenomena are complex patterns of physicochemical ones; there is nothing in living bodies, no special form of energy or any other agency, that is not potentially analyzable into physicochemical components.”
Excerpt 2) “The hierarchy of levels of biological integration may be represented schematically as the following sequence: molecule, cellular organelle, cell, tissue, organ, individual, Mendelian population, species, community, ecosystem.”
Excerpt 3) “Ingram and others found that hemoglobin S differs from A in the substitution of just a single amino acid, valine in place of glutamic acid in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule.”
More than 50 years ago, Theodosius Dobzhansky predicted that “…the substitution of just a single amino acid…” would be more important to understanding and explaining biologically-based cause and effect than any theories. That fact is clear. The only model of the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding that links the “…hierarchy of levels of biological integration…” to its analyzable physiochemical components also links atoms to ecosystems via the conserved molecular mechanisms that have been fully detailed by serious scientists.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
More than 40 years ago, I learned how to detect evidence of the sun’s biological energy via a spectroscopic measure of light energy-induced amino acid substitutions. The transfer of the sun’s spectral energy to amino acid substitutions was manifested in changes of blood glucose levels and changes in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) glucose levels.
The spectrophotometric measurement of glucose levels in humans shows that glucose supports the life of every cell in every tissue of every organ of every organ system in the human body. Levels of glucose also link the life of cells in other organisms from species of microbes to man to the systems biology manifested in their morphological and behavioral phenotypes. Obviously, life is nutrient-dependent.
The nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction controls fixation of the amino acid substitutions that exemplify how glucose-dependent phenotypic expression arises in the context of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled feedback loops and RNA-mediated chromatin loops linked to chromosomal remodeling. The fixation of the amino acid substitutions occurs when the epigenetic landscape is linked to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man. The fixed amino acid substitutions stabilize protein folding and help to ensure genome-wide organism-level thermoregulation, which is nutrient-dependent.
Mutations perturb the nutrient-dependent thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation that are required for the most beneficial fixation of amino acid substitutions. See also: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. The model explains why Dobzhansky (1964) claimed that “…the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists!”
Excerpt: “Subatomic particles tunnelling across gaps in the nose when aroma molecules are around may be the first step in how animals sense scent. This same tunnelling is presumed to be at work in the action of enzymes, those proteins that shuffle chemical reactions along in living things (among them, the breakdown of tadpoles’ tails as they become frogs).”
My comment: Re: the actions of enzymes. The enzymes that enable the sea slug to respond with photosynthesis are part of a 15-step pathway to chlorophyll production that links microbes to man via hydration control in the context of membrane permeability to ions and amino acids. Membrane permeability enables the de novo creation of receptors, which are required for nutrients to enter the cell. See for review: A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution.
Sea slug has taken genes from algae it eats, allowing it to photosynthesize like a plant
Excerpt: This biological adaptation is also a mechanism of rapid evolution, Pierce says. “When a successful transfer of genes between species occurs, evolution can basically happen from one generation to the next,” he notes, rather than over an evolutionary timescale of thousands of years.”
My comment: If so, the slug that eats the sun is another example of how ecological variation leads to RNA-mediated ecological adaptations without the pseudoscientific nonsense of theoretical physicists and evolutionary biologists.
This video representation establishes the basis for an atoms to ecosystems model of the eras in which all organisms have survived. It links them to the nutrient energy-dependent biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding via light-induced amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all individuals of all genera. Species that others claim have somehow evolved appear to have rapidly evolved in several generations, not millions of years. The question again arises: How do theorists differentiate between the evolution of a species and the rapid changes in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of different species?
Excerpt: ‘Remarkably, the proteins share characteristics with modern mollusk shell proteins. They both produce thin, flexible sheets of residue that’s the same color as the original shell after being dissolved in acid. Of the 11 amino acids found in the resulting residue, aspartate and glutamate are prominent, which is typical of modern shell proteins. Further study of these proteins could be used for genetic analysis to trace the evolution of mollusks through the ages, as well as potentially to learn about the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay during the era in which Ecphora thrived.”
My comment: Anesthetics act in a dose-dependent manner on a pulmonate mollusk, the great pond snail and on the behavioral responses of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris. That fact appears to link pond snails and octopuses to the conserved molecular mechanisms of consciousness in flies. See Electron spin changes during general anesthesia in Drosophila
Taken together, the links from mollusks to octopuses and flies support the portrayal in A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution.
Sea slugs are mollusks, which links light-induced amino acid substitutions in plants and in algae to neural cell signaling in humans via the role of docosahexanoic acid.
At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Self-organization and Complexity by Stuart A. Kauffman (1995)
The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality by James V. Kohl and Robert T. Francoeur (1995 / 2002)
Reinventing the Sacred: A New View of Science, Reason, and Religion by Stuart A. Kauffman (2010)
Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False (2012) by Thomas Nagel
Two of the books above predicted the findings in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model, which link light-induced amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all species from microbes to man.